On The Job #5: Of Oil, Gas, And Energy I
I am a Cementing Engineer and i work in petroleum exploration with ONGC at Ankleshwar, Gujarat. Questions like “What is it like working for ONGC, Schlumberger, or Halliburton ” do not need temporary particular answers as a result of there are a large number of job profiles provided to new and recent graduates. I’ll attempt to lay down a quick overview of some profiles by speaking about the life of an oil well, or a fuel well for that matter. This article will probably be about upstream petroleum trade and exploration.
Before 1998, the general public sector had monopoly over the petroleum trade in India. NELP (New Exploration and Licensing Policy) was introduced by the Govt. of India to provide a degree enjoying discipline to both public and personal sector corporations. DGH (Directorate Normal of Hydrocarbons) is the federal government company that implements and enforces NELP. The obtainable oilfields or gasoline basins are divided into blocks based on geology and geography and bids are invited for exploring a selected block. The bid winners are awarded Petroleum Exploration Licences (PEL) and Mining Leases (ML) for a restricted time. The bidders get to maintain exploring for hydrocarbons and produce them if they reach creating the oilfield within a stipulated time. DGH other than recruiting its personal personnel, also takes staff from Indian public sector petroleum companies on deputation. In addition to awarding PELs and MLs to companies through the Ministry of Petroleum and Pure Gasoline (MoPNG), DGH can also be answerable for monitoring and reviewing companies’ performances, facilitating statutory clearances, certifying imports, maintaining databases, and so forth. If this seems to be like loads of paperwork, DGH staff would say it’s within the name “Directorate General”. The workplace of DGH is in Noida.
Allow us to consider a case the place an exploration licence was awarded to a certain company for a geographical space for some time. The company is anticipated to explore and develop the sphere for hydrocarbons within that point. Failure to do so shall end in its mining lease getting cancelled. Contemporary bids can be invited for exploring the sphere after the licence is revoked or after the expiry of the lease.
An preliminary assessment of oil/gas prospects in the sphere is finished by geophysicists, geologists, and knowledge interpreters. 2D and 3D models of sedimentary basins are developed by information acquired by means of geomagnetic, seismic, and acoustic methods. Coordinates for probable wells are drawn by interpreting the info. Exploratory wells are drilled at these coordinates for gathering more information. Short to lengthy columns of formation (the earth’s crust accessed by drilling a properly) are obtained for further study of native geology and assessment of prospects. After drilling a number of exploratory wells in an space, areas for drilling commercially viable wells are recognized and once oil or gas is found, growth wells are drilled for creating a discipline. The wells are handed over for manufacturing after drilling.
So what precisely constitutes drilling
Drilling engineers drill a properly primarily based on a Geotechnical Order (GTO) ready by petroleum geologists in session with drilling engineers and chemists. A GTO serves a blueprint of a well replete with geological and drilling data.
Drilling is done utilizing a drill bit attached to the tip of a drill pipe which derives rotary movement from a drilling rig. Mechanical engineering students examine about chopping fluids in college. These fluids are important for cooling, lubrication, and flushing out debris (chips) whereas machining metal. Drilling fluid performs the same role except that the earth’s crust is being minimize (read: drilled) and the fluid is called drilling fluid as a substitute of reducing fluid. Debris that comes out of a well whereas drilling is known as ‘cuttings’ in oil subject terminology and they are often a drilling geologist’s first window into what is going on under the earth’s surface. Drilling fluid is just referred to as ‘mud’ since mud was the first drilling fluid. Even fashionable drilling fluids are completely different kinds of muds with chemical additives added for manipulation of specific gravity and rheology. Mud can be oil-based (emulsion), water-based mostly, or artificial. Clays are added for gelation properties, thickeners are added to govern viscosity, and weighting brokers like Hematite are added to increase the particular gravity. Mud flows by the drill pipe, then the drill bit, and subsequently though the annulus before exiting the nicely. Particular gravity of the mud is a vital factor because the sum of hydrostatic strain exerted by the mud column and the stress utilized on the floor should at all times be greater than formation pressure which is the pressure of fluids within the pores of the oil or gasoline reservoir. This condition is named overbalance. Underbalance can lead to move of hydrocarbons while drilling which if uncontrolled, can lead to a blowout. Excessive overbalance can harm formation. In many ways, the entire system of a nicely being drilled is just like a u-tube where the drill pipe is one arm of the u-tube while the annulus between the drill pipe and the well’s wall is the opposite. Mud properties are managed by an onsite chemist referred to as a mud chemist, mud engineer, or drilling chemist.
Drilling might be finished each onshore (on land) and offshore (on sea) using appropriate drilling rigs in stages by drilling holes of decreasing diameters following the GTO. Every gap is cased and cemented earlier than proceeding to the subsequent hole measurement. A casing is a metal pipe that is positioned within the open gap. The casing in held in place by cement. Inserting cement in the annular house between two cylinders can not carried out by pumping cement straight into that area for concern of contamination and uneven distribution. As an alternative, cement is pumped into the casing first after which displaced into the annular house utilizing mud or water as displacement fluid. In many ways, this displacement is similar to emptying a syringe into a cylinder with slightly bigger diameter than the syringe. The whole operation is called a cementing job.
The varied parameters that need to be managed are the rheology, density, bonding power, and thickening time of the cement; thickening time, especially because cement shouldn’t set earlier than reaching the desired place. Various chemical additives are added to cement for improving physical and operational properties. Corporations normally have chemists producing job-particular check stories at cementing labs for this objective. ONGC and a few exploration firms have their own cementing providers however generally, cementing providers are outsourced. Schlumberger and Halliburton are names recognized to college students.
Why drill in stages instead of drilling a single-bore well There are a lot of solutions to this question. Sand, sandstone, clay, shale, basalt, limestone, etc. – these are varied kinds of formations that can be encountered while drilling. Cement, apart from sustaining integrity of the casing, isolates each zone since the maximum drilling hydrostatic pressure that can be borne changes with the formation and depth. This implies different levels of drilling require different mud weights. Oil and fuel drilling also goes past potable groundwater basins that have to be remoted from hydrocarbon move.
Cementing engineers and technicians are merely called field engineers in lots of companies. Their job is to plan and execute cementing jobs in coordination with drilling engineers, mud engineers, and geologists. Planning is normally achieved in an office, cement slurry design in a lab, and execution at drill site.
Well logging specialists are often geophysicists who acquire information from inside a properly by lowering instruments (acoustic, radioactive, or electric relying on the aim) into the borehole using a cable.
As soon as a nicely is drilled and cased as per plan, it’s examined for production. Wells may require stimulation and activation jobs before manufacturing. Effectively service firms are known as in for this purpose again. Viably producing wells are capped with a ‘Christmas tree’, an assembly of valves and other fittings. It is known as a Christmas tree because a producing well means joy and end result of days of hard work for drillers. That and it actually appears to be like a bit like a Christmas tree. The nicely is then connected to pipelines or tapped into crude oil tankers.
Self-flowing wells stream on their own without any exterior stimulus owing to the strain of hydrocarbons. Artificial lift methods are used for wells that do not circulate – sucker rod pump is g p petroleum the most common methodology used and the mechanism is much like the working of a hand pump used with water bore wells. Submersible pumps and gas elevate are different methods.
Typically, wells are handed over to production engineers after completion. Excess gasoline and water from crude oil is eliminated earlier than supplying it to downstream industries where petrol, diesel, lubricants, and many others. are g p petroleum extracted.
After producing for a while which might fluctuate with the effectively from a couple of days to some a long time, some oil wells produce excess quantity of gas or water. Such a properly may require repairs called work-over. A drilling rig or a work-over rig is positioned at the properly site for this function. Work-over rigs are usually smaller in measurement and capability when compared to drilling rigs.
Wells past repair are abandoned by inserting cement plugs within.
Now that our effectively is drilled, right here are a few things that might interest any prospective worker –
- Petroleum corporations often pay better than different core engineering firms owing to their bigger profit margins and the size of the trade.
Engineers who work for petroleum companies are uncovered to geosciences – geology, geophysics, and geochemistry. These sciences are very intriguing.
- While vehicle engineers have SAE, petroleum engineers have SPE (Society of Petroleum Engineers). PetroWiki – is an efficient on-line supply of data and technical data. API (American Petroleum Institute) is a commerce affiliation that acts not only as a standardizations group like ASME but in addition as a lobbyist medium between petroleum corporations and governments.
Individuals from all trades work in petroleum firms; not just mechanical and petroleum engineers. Electronics, electric, structural and civil, finance, logistics, environmental, PR – identify it and there are people from that background working in petroleum. A lot of the job roles are multidisciplinary. For instance, I work for procurement and contracts along with cementing and my colleagues work for mechanical upkeep or inventory administration in addition to cementing.
- Drilling, cementing and effectively services demand employees to be adaptive. On-land drill websites are often in very unfavourable locations – Sizzling elements of Gujarat, Rajasthan, AP and TN in India, the Middle East, Texas, California and Alaska in the USA, Siberia in Russia, the Scandinavian nations, etc.
Hydrocarbon exploration sites are normally very distant. Thanks to fashionable telecommunications, 3G is available at most drill websites. Offshore rigs are usually equipped with internet by way of satellite tv for pc linkup. Drillers are usually taken to offshore rigs on helicopters. The locations, although remote, are serene and stunning.
- Drilling rigs may be very various of their degree of sophistication. Some primitive rigs from 1960s are still operational with many companies while fashionable rigs may be operated through a console and a joystick from a pressurized local weather-controlled cabin.
Jobs like this drive girls (or their parents) away from mechanical engineering. The work could be physically intensive. People working on the rig flooring are referred to as ‘roughnecks’. Engineers are anticipated to do bodily work. Most staff get match of their first two years. Others quit. However corporations do have programs to encourage women to work onsite; a type of is “From Stilettos to Steel Toes” by Schlumberger. Speak about lame puns.
Life on The Rig by Weatherford Australia:
Coaching to turn out to be a Shell Nicely engineer by Shell:
9. Drilling operations go on spherical the clock. The 24 hour day is break up into two twelve hour shifts or three eight hour shifts. This suggests the likelihood of having to do bodily work when the body simply desires to fall asleep.
10. Subject engineers and offshore personnel work in hitches which are sets of days served onsite. They get off-time after serving a hitch. The responsibility sample in ONGC in 14 days ON-OFF while it’s 21 days ON-OFF in some firms working in the Center East. Nevertheless, off-time equal to on-time is not assured. Uneven patterns like three weeks on and one week off are not unusual. Other fields with comparable duty patterns are mining and merchant transport. Workers are anticipated to make do with off-time for the ‘life’ part of labor-life stability. As they are saying, “Work laborious, play laborious.”
- Individuals in the same shifts and hitches share a bond that can be seen only in blue-collar workplaces. Humour and profanities go together.
. It’s an all-weather job i.e. rigs don’t shut down resulting from dangerous weather. Until the rig is owned by the drilling company, rigs are usually hired at a day-charge or a week-rate. Therefore, quicker drilling implies bigger revenue margins and NPT isn’t an option.
. The 24×7 operations also mean staff having a hard time getting leaves however after all, it is determined by the boss. Leaving site or the sea for civilization usually feels like this –
14. The industry is dominated by American firms owing to their early entry and massive expertise. This means using imperial and FPS – system of measurement predominantly. Toes, pounds, barrels, gallons, pounds per gallon, sacks, psi, Fahrenheit and gallons per minute – these are a few models which can be used. Fairly irksome for us fans of the metric system.
- The duration of an onsite job for a service engineer can last from a few hours to a couple weeks. I’ve met people who clocked forty eight-fifty six hours at one go. Essentials like clear toilets and beds turn into a luxury.
. Drilling is classified as a dirty job alongside scavenging, plumbing, dairy farming, and animal slaughtering. While there is no disgrace in doing dirty jobs, it’s a question of willingness. Mud, grease, and oil are some dirties in question.
. Occupational hazards embody blowout scenarios. While Blowout Preventers (BOPs) are used throughout drilling and work-over operations, unlikely accidents do happen attributable to unforeseen elements or human error. Much less dramatic hazards embrace exposure to mud chemicals and cement additives. Though carcinogenic chemicals have been eliminated of late, most of them are still toxic and noxious. PPE actually saves lives. Security is just not a joke.
. Drilling operations seldom go on in keeping with plan. Issues like stuck drill pipe, kick (an inflow of gasoline that can turn out to be a blowout if unchecked), mechanical failures, and extreme weather circumstances like storms may be encountered. Improvisation (learn: jugaad) is the norm. Resourceful personnel are valued.
. Speaking of mechanical failures, pure mechanical upkeep profiles exist everywhere in the trade. Upkeep engineers may be posted wherever from workshops to drilling rigs. In reality, they have essentially the most numerous exposure to the sphere over their career span. However oilfield tools g p petroleum is a very niche area and a career shift to industrial gear maintenance does not come straightforward.
20. Design engineers are employed by corporations that manufacture oilfield gear. Their onsite exposure is minimal however their jobs are normally most mathematical among the many profiles offered for mechanical engineers. FMC, Weir, Hydril, Cameron, and Technip are a couple of names.
- The establishment of renewable energy infrastructure, though an excellent thing, shouldn’t be the top of petroleum. Vitality isn’t the one application of hydrocarbons. As a matter of fact, they’re in all places around us within the form of polymers – fabric, packaging, paints, insulation, and so on. And one doesn’t merely forget pharmaceuticals.
. A operating quote amongst petroleum engineers is – The days of simple oil are over. Which means oil continues to be there for extraction, however exploration is changing into an more and more tough and costly process. Expert professionals in the sphere are bound to earn extra in the close to future.
. However there’s a catch. Brent crude oil value index and WTI crude index are the most widely accepted benchmarks for international crude oil pricing. The index has fallen down drastically from $ 112 per barrel in June, 2014 to $ sixty six per barrel this week. In actual fact, the Brent index fell under $ 50 per barrel in January; this figure was the lowest since 2008. Numerous explanations have been put ahead by economists. Essentially the most accepted ones are – a. Drilling exercise in the USA has increased leading to discount of imports from OPEC international locations. Since that will imply a provide surplus from the Center East the place a lot of the oil producing nations are, the crude worth has come down.
b. While Saudi Arabia has the capability to throttle its production of oil, thereby rising the global crude price, economists suspect that Saudi leaders see doing that as relinquishing OPEC control over crude price.
c. Oil price fluctuates with demand and provide shocks (sudden modifications that can be constructive and negative). Unrest in Iraq and Syria is considered as a detrimental supply shock that ought to logically push the crude worth up. But economists believe that the consequences of an total weak world economic system outweigh the consequences of the shock.
d. The effect of rising interest in shale fuel, coal, and renewable energy has positively been a factor.
24. This worth droop has affected not solely the economies of oil exporting international locations comparable to Iran, Russia, and Venezuela, but in addition the finances of many petroleum companies. Many workers have been laid off previously year. Of course, there will likely be a rise in oil price in the end, however companies are mired in uncertainty for the foreseeable future. Short-term recessions are frequent in many domains but pursuing a career or graduation during recession might be scary. Calculated danger based on an individual’s situation and options is the only method to go.
Christmas tree (oil nicely)
Display screen-grab from the film ‘500 Days of Summer’: The “Pretty Woman”/”(500) Days of Summer” Fountain and Park
The Null Device: gadgets for tags metric
p.s. I could not find respectable usable images or videos of Indian drilling rigs. Images is prohibited on ONGC compounds and Indian media covers solely accidents.
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