Get Bermuda Out Of St. Augustine

Get Bermuda out of St. Augustine

jimbocard – posted 21 March 2006 13:48

I’ve an exquisite Palmetto St. Augustine yard. I stay in central Florida. I have a lot of Bermuda grass coming up via the St. Augustine. What can I do to get rid of the Bermuda? I’ve tried spherical up and resodding nevertheless it comes proper back. From what I perceive it has a really deep root system. I have also went through my yard on my palms and knees and pulled out all of the Bermuda and it just comes back. Petroleum Refining Process I’ve heard that Professional Grass will work but also heard it doesn’t phase it. I’ve additionally heard that Asulox will kill it. I have some Asulox however don’t know what power to combine it. I’ve read that 1.5 ounces per gallon for crabgrass but can’t find anything for Bermuda. Does anyone have any recommendation or recommendations?

hankhill – posted 30 March 2006 02:26

The place did you get the Asulox? I heard thecompany that made it stopped promoting it tohomeowners. (Only sod farms can get it.)

jimbocard – posted 30 March 2006 17:25

a pal of mine has about 1/2 a jug and gave me some. do you know if it’ll work on bermuda and what the mixture ratio is?

hankhill – posted 01 April 2006 02:35

I was in a position to discover a label for Asulox onthe Net and it listed 419 (commercial)Bermuda as a tolerant grass (as well asSt. Augustine). That might make me thinkit won’t do anything to wild Bermuda. Ithink it’s mostly for Crabgrass.

I have Bermuda issues too, however there’snot much obtainable, as you say. Atrazinemay do something, however the Prograss is realexpensive, like $400 for two.5 gallons.

There should be approach to get the bermudaby targetting the rhizomes, since St. Augustine doesn’t have rhizomes, butas I don’t have a DNA lab, I don’t havethe resources to engineer a herbicide.

Man Riccardelli – posted 08 April 2006 10:55

I live in SW Florida and have the identical drawback with Bermuda grass mixing with my Floratam lawn. I requested the people at Lesco fertilizer and so they, like the Florida Agricultural Extension, instructed me that there was no method to do away with the Bermuda grass from a Floratam lawn.

It seems that we have to live with it.

jimbocard – posted 09 April 2006 10:11

I can get a 2-1/2 gallon jug of Pro-grass from lesco for $250. I talked to my lawn service about it and they’ve purchased some and are studying about it to allow them to experiment with it. I volunteered my lawn for his or her experiments however they haven’t used it but. I’ve heard that atrazine will work however I haven’t been capable of discover a source for that but since its a restricted chemical and i don’t have an applicators license. My neighbor has been utilizing the asulox on his crabgrass and it doesn’t even wilt it. The baking soda frivolously sprinkled on the crabgrass is the smartest thing I’ve seen for that.

hankhill – posted 06 June 2006 00:36

Attention-grabbing you mention the pro-grass. Themore work I put into the lawn preserving it good(part of which is fighting the bermuda) themore I’m prepared to pay for that stuff.However, I’m curious you say you possibly can getit for $250 since the Lesco site quotesme $380 for the 2.5 gallon jug. I do know theydiscount for professionals but you sayyou’re not an applicator.

With respect to Atrazine, it have to be a stateissue. In Texas you can buy it over thecounter in liquid type (pure) or mixedwith fertilizer (Scott’s Bonus S). Thelatter is on the market from House Depot.

Cease 419 Advance Charge Fraud

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Shearing machine

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Malaysia Has Requested Its National Oil Company

Malaysia has requested its National Oil Company, Petronas to provide the nation with new petrol quality of RON95 as a substitute of the present out there petrol quality RON92 and RON97. The nation’s administration transfer will eradicate RON92 to better place with global petrol high quality.

The move has been getting totally different response from the Malaysian individuals. The move will assist Malaysia as an entire to save subsidy by supplying a decrease quality petrol RON95 at a price expected to be as close to the current RON97. oil And Gas Production However, the federal government can even increase the price of RON97 which anticipated by analysts to be the nation’s premium petrol. While a lot of as we speak’s car are designed to run by RON95; a few of outdated fashions are incompatible.

The transfer can be prone to incur significant value for PETRONAS below its advertising arm, PETRONAS Dagangan Bhd as RON95 petrol is formulated with a detergent to forestall the construct-up of deposits that degrade the engine’s efficiency. The company has said that the change includes the entire provide chain from refineries to delivery of the fuel to the shoppers which comes September 9 is prone to be adopted by other oil companies like Shell, BHP, Caltex and Exxon Mobil within the country as set by the Malaysian government.

Now could be The proper Time To buy Refining Stocks

Sometimes, markets overreact to information.

On this case, we’re speaking about the latest landmark determination by the Obama administration to start the early phases of exporting our crude oil bounty overseas.

The news was heralded by varied energy companies particularly those in the Bakken and Eagle Ford producing regions of country. After all, those exports ought to help West Texas Intermediate (WTI) benchmarked crude improve in price and commerce nearer to worldwide benchmark Brent. That means some hefty profits for those firms drilling within our borders.

Sadly, that’s not essentially an excellent factor in case you function a refiner and use WTI as an inexpensive feedstock on your gasoline, jet gasoline and different merchandise. As such, shares of main refining stocks like Valero (VLO) and Marathon (MPC) fell arduous on the news.

Maybe too arduous.

For investors in search of a overwhelmed-down value in the power sector, downstream gamers might be among the best bets at current hearth-sale prices.

Exporting Condensate

Final week, the Obama Administration and the Commerce Division paved the best way for U.S. oil exports. In a landmark choice, government officials gave Pioneer Natural Sources (PXD) the go-ahead to start exporting a kind of gentle oil often known as condensate. The byproduct of pure gas drilling, condensate is taken into account a type of oil and is actually a mixture of varied hydrocarbons, including every thing from extra conventional natural gasoline liquids (NGLs) to elements resembling gasoline or “drip gasoline. An enormous and rising use is mixing it’ll heavy oil sands-style oil in order for it to be shipped by pipelines.

That makes it a very helpful and profitable product for energy companies. And we’re producing a ton of it now, thanks in part to fracking.

The important thing for PXD and associate Enterprise Product Companions (EPD) is that, according to the Commence Department, condensate fits the bill as a “refined product for export. That’s because it needs to go through a collection of stabilizers throughout the gathering process so as for use. Although that course of is absolutely only one or two steps, it still makes condensate a “refined product and eligible for export beneath present guidelines.

Several analysts has postulated that this is just the first step to lifting the forty-year ban on exporting straight crude oil exports. And that’s bad information when you rely on cheap mid-continent crude as your most important revenue driver. So it’s no marvel why shares of the refining stocks plunged on the news. VLO dipped 8.Three%, MPC dropped 6.3% and PBF Energy (PBF) plunged by 11%.

A giant Overreaction in Refining Stocks

The concern is rightfully there. After all, the sheer glut of crude oil right here in America is allowing refining stocks to understand insane income on their crack unfold margins. So some drop is certainly warranted. However an 8%-plus plunge? I’m not so positive.

Here’s why that’s unwarranted /h2>

First, that is condensate we are speaking about. No one ever said anything about raw crude oil. In fact, the Commerce Department basically acknowledged that there had been “no change in policy towards crude oil exports. Exporting crude oil has turn out to be this year’s sizzling-button difficulty, and the controversy round it resembles the vitriol surrounding TransCanada’s (TRP) Keystone XL pipeline. That pipeline remains to be slowed down in regulatory muck. I suspect that raw crude oil exports will principally face the same destiny.

Those exports if they happen in any respect will most probably resemble what is going on in the natural gas and LNG sectors. Controlled facility approvals, export quotas and the like are the norm for the LNG producers. Solely a slight handful of amenities have been given the green gentle to begin exporting to nations with commerce agreements with the U.S. (and people that do not share such offers are even fewer in quantity).

In the meantime, we’re still producing ton of crude oil that continues to be locked within the United States borders. The WTI/Brent unfold ought to remain favorable for quite a while. Nothing about the present condensate export deal will crimp margins or earnings right now for the refining stocks. In fact, they may actually get larger.

As we said before, considered one of the principle makes use of for condensate is thinning out heavy oil, like the kind Canada is blessed with. West Canadian Select (WSC) crude oil trades for even cheaper costs that WTI or Brent. I’m sure the refiners would love to get their palms on more of this cheap oil. Sending condensate upwards would make that attainable.

Let’s not overlook that lots of the refiners are actually becoming petrochemical powerhouses which were getting into processing some of these gentle oils/NGLs. Add in the fact that a lot of them own export terminals for gasoline that would easily add capacity for delivery condensate and you may see how the market has principally panicked over nothing.

Time To purchase Refiners

Basically, the market is extrapolating a whole lot of “what if from the recent decision to export condensate. For opportunistic investors, that gives plenty of probabilities for them to doubtlessly add a few of the top refiners to the portfolios on the cheap.

The drop in refining stocks has despatched worth-to-earnings ratios all the way down to historic lows and dividend yields to new highs. Valero trades for a P/E of just 10 and with a 1.7% dividend yield, while Phillips 66 (PSX) and Western Refining (WNR) each commerce at just 13 occasions earnings together with a 2.5% payout. All function rising earnings, vast product strains and MLP subsidiaries offering hefty tax-deferred payouts.

Static And Dynamic Seals For Pyrolysis

And those are simply a number of the candidates for inclusion. The bottom line is that market has overreacted to a bit of reports that actually has zero implications on at the moment or the near future. Buyers trying to shift by the noise are capable of snag some deals within the downstream gamers.

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Kastens Inc. Farms

This picture reveals our setup for testing a Flexi-Coil fertilizer opener.

Here is the DMI 40′ rig in the sphere topdressing wheat in corn stalks in 2006. It’s being pulled by our John Deere 8420 with Auto-Trac.

Right here is the DMI rig folded up for transport. On this image one may also see the 1000 gallon pull-behind tank used to carry one of the liquid products.

View of valving system. On the correct facet the Hypro pump will be clearly seen on the toolbar body and one other is setup on the exact reverse facet. Both pumps transfer product by way of the valving programs and then via a one-method valve into a common manifold where they are then blended. From the manifold, the blended product is then delivered to the openers.

The fertilizer opener is proven here. The rolling coulter is 15″ in diameter and runs straight (as opposed to pitched). The hose delivering the fertilizer is shown connected to the tube that accommodates the nozzle. We added the massive bolts behind nozzle bodies to prevent the nozzles from being pressured backwards by residue (which causes the fertilizer stream to become misaligned with the slot). The design of this opener permits us to apply fertilizer subsurface whereas disturbing only a minimal quantity of residue and soil structure.

Here is an image of the Refinery in-cab elements. On the underside left are the two Raven 440 controllers, each controlling one among the 2 liquid supply programs. In the higher right the two RAM mounts are proven that hold the Ipaq’s. At this point in time (2002), we weren’t working Auto-Trac on this tractor but, hence the absence of the GreenStar I console.

Here is a close up view of the 2 Ipaq’s working Farmworks SiteMate VRA. The wires coming into the top of the Ipaq’s present GPS signal (from the tractors’ Starfire receiver) while the 2 massive cables coming out of the underside of the Ipaq’s are related to the Raven 440’s. In case you look closely at the sphere proven on every Ipaq different colours will be seen throughout every map which represent completely different fertilizer charges. SiteMateVRA plots the GPS signal from the tractor when shifting and as the location of the tractor strikes from one-acre grid to one-acre grid the relevant fee is routinely “looked up” in the prescription map after which despatched to the Raven 440 controllers.

Right here is an image from the wheat topdressing software in 2005. Notice the presence of the GreenStar I console (running the Auto-Trac) as well as the absence of one of the Raven 440 controllers. At this application, we are typically only applying one product (32-0-0) and consequently do not need the second product supply system. Additionally on this image a GreenSeeker handheld system may be seen (yellow pole attached to square box on floor). We have been gathering knowledge with the GreenSeeker during this operation which was then logged on the second Ipaq proven in the image. The GreenSeeker sensor was mounted on the weight bracket of the tractor.

The DMI Nutri-placr has been a particularly dependable and durable rig, especially when one considers that the majority of the time it is being pulled at eleven mph, over the tops of terraces, and usually carrying over 1500 gallons of product. We are pleased with its low residue and soil disturbance characteristics, its narrow transport width (14.7′) and it’s low horsepower requirements. My only complaint is that it is just 40′ as a substitute of 60 or 80′. At eleven mph and the 40′ width, we can cover over 50 acres per hour. With tendering and transport between fields included, we common round 30 acres per hour.

Fertilizing in standing stripper cut wheat stubble. Also proven is our new (in 2008) JD Skiles Row-tracker trailer that has two tanks (500/1300).

Displaying full “practice” in the sphere with row-tracker trailer in tow.

Right this moment we not use the Raven 440’s and have converted everything over to be run by an AgLeader Perception.

At forty’ this rig is on the small end of what we’d like and we’re searching for a minimum of a 60′ rig to exchange this one. To date we haven’t discovered anything we really like so it may be needed to construct our own.

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Catalyst Market To 2018 Market Share, Growth, Developments

Grand View has announced the addition of “Catalyst Market Evaluation and Section Forecasts To 2020” Market Analysis report back to their Database.

International Catalyst Market is expected to achieve USD 27.59 billion by 2020, according to a brand new examine by Grand View Research, Inc. Rising demand for polymers is predicted to end in elevated utilization of refinery capacities which in flip is predicted to drive catalyst Coal demand. Favorable regulatory state of affairs for growth of excessive yield, environment friendly and conservative manufacturing processes can also be expected to enhance demand over the forecast period.

Chemical synthesis was essentially the most dominant software market; with catalyst demand exceeding 1,800 kilo tons in 2013, owing to growth in chemical manufacturing, notably in Asia Pacific and Latin America. Environmental catalysis another key software market, accounting for over 29% of worldwide catalyst demand in 2013 and is anticipated to witness fastest growth, at an estimated CAGR of three.9% from 2014 to 2020; on account of growing desire towards the manufacturing of unpolluted fuels and use of green technology in manufacturing process.

Browse full analysis report on Global Catalyst Market:

World catalyst demand was 6,259.3 kilo tons in 2013 and is predicted to succeed in 7,803.Four kilo tons by 2020, growing at a CAGR of 3.2% from 2014 to 2020.

Chemical compounds had been the most important consumed catalytic materials, accounting for over 40% of catalyst demand in 2013. In addition, these materials are additionally expected to witness quickest growth over the forecast period at an estimated CAGR of three.4% from 2014 to 2020 on account of their lower cost compared to zeolites and metals.

Heterogeneous catalysts were the dominant product section out there, with international demand exceeding 4,900 kilo tons in 2013 because of inherent advantages compared to homogenous catalysts.

Asia Pacific was the biggest regional market for catalysts, accounting for 33.50% of worldwide demand in 2013. The area accounts for over 30% of worldwide refining capacity and a big chunk of polymer manufacturing.

worldregionsproject - Economic Systems of Middle East

Key market individuals embrace Zeolyst International Inc, W.R Grace Revenue, USD Million, 2012 – 2020)
Heterogeneous Catalysts
Homogenous Catalysts
Catalyst Material Outlook (Volume, Kilo Tons; Income, USD Million, 2012 – 2020)
Chemical Compound
Catalyst Application Outlook (Quantity, Kilo Tons; Income, USD Million, 2012 – 2020)
Petroleum Refining
Chemical Synthesis
Catalysts Regional Outlook (Quantity, Kilo Tons; Revenue, USD Million, 2012 – 2020)
North America
Asia Pacific
Browse more experiences of this category by Grand View Analysis:

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Who Advantages From Decrease Oil Costs?

Who benefits from decrease oil prices?

Decrease gas costs are great for the patron, but we all know that not all of the associated fee saving of decrease crude oil and gas prices have been handed on to the general public. Oil and gas refiners prosper from decrease oil costs. Like the rest of the oil industry, refiners’ revenues are down, but their revenue margins are up significantly.
Refiners are utilizing lower crude prices to widen their minimize of the pump worth of oil. In other words, the lower worth of oil will not be solely handed right down to consumers at the pump, as a substitute the difference is enabling refiners to extend their profits.

Price Falls

Crude oil costs have been plummeting since June 2014. The initial fall was speedy and unexpected. This was because manufacturing grew sooner than projections and demand deteriorated quicker than expected, resulting in an excess of oil for sale on the planet. Periodic rumor-fuelled rallies out there since June 2014 have proved to be the result of wishful considering. Recent occasions, such as the fall in Chinese progress projections and the tip of sanctions towards Iran, have given economists cause to downgrade their expectations for crude oil prices.

The lurches in the consensus of opinion for demand for oil over the past year have brought on temporary opportunities for worth rises on the fuel pump. The retail fuel industry tends to boost prices quickly when crude prices rise and drop costs slowly when crude prices fall. This variable speed of value movements has given the refineries and the fuel stations alternatives to increase their profit margins.

The fall in the price of crude oil from June 2014 to June 2015 was around $eighty per barrel. This shaved $1.60 off the cost of a gallon of gasoline. However, the pump worth only fell by $1.20 during that period.

The Losers

High costs for crude oil from 2010 to 2014 gave great incentives to US explorers to spend money on locating new sources of oil and gas. The apply of hydraulic fracturing rapidly expanded the USA’s oil production and contributed to the present glut. High gross sales prices meant that fracking corporations may bowl into town, rich with simple cash. They sprayed cash across the communities they moved into and offered high costs for mineral rights and site access. Those gold rush bonanza days ended in June 2014. The price fall in crude oil did not squeeze frackers out of enterprise, they triggered them to be much more careful with their money.

Frackers realized to extract more oil from every rig, thus reducing the start up overhead costs of every nicely. The elevated tightness of financing meant the idea of spending thousands and thousands to get entry and purchase pals was off the desk. Quite a lot of the largesse of fracking has been wiped off the books and so local communities within the neighborhood of fracking performs profit lots less from a new properly, than these lucky residents reaped again in 2012 and 2013.

Fewer rigs imply fewer staff. It additionally means that much less tools needs to be sold. Thus, oil service firms make fewer gross sales, and likewise require fewer employees to maintain their reduced output. Employment in the oil industry has suffered as plans get put off and exploration is minimize back. As examples of this phenomenon, consider Schlumberger, which is the largest oilfield service company on this planet. Schlumberger has minimize its workforce by 9,000 this year. Weatherford International cut their payroll from 60,000 staff to 46,000 in 2014 after which made an extra 5,000 staff redundant in 2015.

By squeezing margins and employing new expertise, US frackers have been ready to stay in the sport. Their success at maintaining profitability at lower market costs has put pressure on typical producers around the world to reduce earnings and slash costs. So, though no producers have gone bust yet, their drive to outlive has returned plenty of oil workers to the employment strains.

Unemployment reduces the wages of employed oil staff, because there are many different who would fill the shoes of specialists who walk off site fairly than reducing their charges. Thus, the oil industry’s workforce has become a serious loser within the low crude worth period.

Center Japanese OPEC members are mentioned to be driving the value fall to be able to squeeze out their fracking rivals. This strategy has misplaced these governments the earnings they want to keep their economies operating with very little various sources of earnings. They must now subsidize their governments with their international forex reserves. Drawing down bank deposits means there may be much less cash obtainable for banks to lend, thus squeezing credit and lowering world financial enlargement further.

As Arabian governments begin to attract down their savings, they are going to be pressured to chop government spending. Oil producers within the Center East buy off their residents’ ambitions for democracy with petrodollars. Of course when the money runs out, instability will increase even further in those countries.

The Winners

The recorded fall within the gasoline pump price of $1.20 per gallon is a particular profit to the American client. Under regular circumstances, economists would count on this saving to spice up spending on shopper items. However, this time round, individuals don’t appear to be spending their gas financial savings on buying bigger fuel guzzling autos. This could also be because the trend towards energy efficiency is finally starting to lodge in the American psyche. Current reminiscence of economic uncertainty also appears to have made the common American nervous about spending.

An increasing fraction of American shoppers has decided to pocket that saving and pay down debt, somewhat than splurging on household gadgets or luxurious vacations. Due to this fact, families will also be long-time period winners from the crude price fall. Mother and father now charge monetary safety over consolation spending.

By far, refiners have been the largest winners of the crude oil worth downturn. This position is mirrored in the stock valuations of refining corporations. The stock price of the refiners, Valero Vitality went from $43.76 per share in November 2014 to $70.Forty three in August 2015. This rise was primarily resulting from the company’s surge in earnings. In June 2014 the enterprise reported a profit margin of 1.68 per cent. By June 2015, that determine had risen to 5.38 per cent. Refiner Tesoro Corporation has risen in value from $fifty six.20 in June 2014 to $102.08 in August 2015.

As an illustration of the elevated margins the refiners skilled, figures from Total S.A. present a margin of $three.75 per barrel in the ultimate quarter of that yr. Profitability took off by way of 2015 and the company reported its refining margins at $6.Seventy three in the first quarter and $7.36 in the second quarter.

The oil price fall was a symptom of an excess of manufacturing. As wells stored pumping oil right into a saturated market, stockholdings rose. This resulted in a scarcity of storage capability, and so the price of storage rocketed. Storage fees rose from 20 cents per barrel to eighty cents by March 2015. The shares in Vopak NV, an oil storage provider, rose by 33 per cent between August 2014 and April 2015. Kinder Morgan rose by a similar margin and rival storage firms also rose in value over the identical period.

Is that this Profiteering?

There are legal guidelines in place to guard in opposition to profiteering. These legal guidelines stop fuel stations from overcharging for fuel during crises and pure disasters, equivalent to tornadoes. Shouldn’t they be utilized? By definition, a business will be accused of profiteering when it raises costs throughout awar or emergency. Although the current oil value is a matter of global financial significance, it cannot be defined as a disaster or an emergency.

In truth the pump value for gasoline is slightly cheaper than it was once a yr ago so the prices were not even raised. This is named capitalism, not profiteering and is central to a free market economic system. This is the American way. For those who too need to profit from this case you may — purchase refiner or oil storage stocks.


Revenue derives from the hole between what it costs to provide one thing and what someone is prepared to pay for that product. No one considers himself a charlatan if he sells his dwelling for more than he paid for it. That revenue in all probability came from nothing more than the increase in the quantity that buyers were ready to pay and never from any decoration or upkeep work carried out by the vendor.

Demand for gasoline is inelastic, however provide ranges can differ broadly. Shortages of crude oil cause the value of crude oil to rise and excess manufacturing causes the value to fall. Thus, in the current market, refineries can drive the value of their raw materials down and they don’t lose sales by sustaining sale price ranges. The crude oil market is at the moment in oversupply, however the automotive person can’t revenue totally from that worth-miserable factor, because they can not pump crude oil into their automobiles. That is the basic formulation for revenue.

The middleman sectors of the oil industry – transport refining and tanking – normally revenue most throughout a crude oil price downturn. That is a standard sample famous by economists. As the gatekeepers to the consumer market, this sector beneficial properties energy when producers need to compete to promote, and thus they can force down their input costs.

Logistics corporations usually combine the functions of refining, transport and storage, as a result of that gives them a win-win state of affairs. Producers which might be prepared to drop their costs will sell their output to the refiners, who then have lower prices. Those that hold out for higher costs want storage, thus the tanking divisions of the logistics firms can increase their prices due to excess demand for his or her services.

Oil production is gradual to show round. An oil well takes years to plan and established shipping agreements are exhausting to break. Over time, producers will reduce their output and put extra effort into finding different regions in the world where they’ll ship their crude oil. These activities will finally carry provide and demand for crude oil again into equilibrium.

Although demand for gasoline is fairly mounted, long-term changes in the gasoline market will finally have an effect there too. The price of several types of gasoline is a significant component when families and companies resolve to buy autos and heating techniques. An enduring lower oil price will finally improve demand for the product as furnaces, trucks, buses and cars get changed. Larger demand for gasoline puts pressure on logistics corporations to source extra crude oil, which returns some power to the crude oil producers and reduces the negotiating energy of refineries. Equally, when demand rises towards falling availability, the necessity for storage falls and logistics companies have to start out pricing their providers competitively so as to take care of throughput in their excessive-price amenities.

The share prices of tanking giants Vopak NV and Kinder Morgan peaked in April 2015 after which began to fall. The excess earnings to be made from storage already appear to be petering out. The top of the imbalance within the oil sector seems to be inside view for inventory investors, so margin good points of the logistics companies will now start to decline.

Propylene Equipment

Different oil worth situations generate larger profits at different points in the availability chain. This year, and for at the least one other yr to come, the processors, transporters and retailers have their turn to ramp up their share of the sales worth. In other years, oil brokers make all the cash and at different occasions oil producers can identify their value. Regardless of which particular stakeholder has a periodic opportunity to profit, there’s one group that will at all times revenue from crude oil and gasoline – the federal government.

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7 Advantages Of Composite V Concrete Slabs

Composite slabs and trench covers are the fibre strengthened plastic various to concrete slabs which are used as lightweight coverings for footpaths, trench covers, highways, access points and sewers. They’re sturdy, durable and robust. Composite slabs can provide the following benefits:

– Lightweight;

– Anti-Slip;

– Corrosion, Fire, Weather, and Impact Resistant/Deflective;

– Non-Magnetic, Sparking, or Conductive;

– Upkeep Free, Straightforward to put in;

– High quality, Strong and Durable; and

– Economical.


FRP, or fibre strengthened plastic, weighs round 1/three that of concrete; yet is incredibly sturdy. In fact, FRP usually outperforms concrete in point load and influence exams. The lightweight nature of FRP allows for a single particular person lift, which might greatly scale back maintenance costs.


Composite trench covers, because of a gritted surface, provide distinctive anti-slip safety in all weather. This helps provide safe entry when it counts, in poor weather.


Composite slabs are confirmed to be resistant towards decay, breakage, and extreme weather. They are extraordinarily durable and resistant towards chemicals and hearth, making them superb in building, mining and oilrig purposes. FRP slabs have been used for steel moulding, plastic recycling, even in incinerators!

Composite trench covers have proven wonderful ends in deflection testing, accepting heavy impacts with out permanent deformation.


Composite slabs are non-magnetic, non-sparking and don’t conduct electricity, making them perfect for use in hazardous environments. They can be utilized in railway gas stations, oil refineries, underground mining operations, ammunition factories and the like.

5. Maintenance FREE, Straightforward To put in

Composite trench covers are very simple to install. Kinetic Energy Refinery Equipment Easy hand instruments can be used to put in and take away them. Composite slabs are also lighter than other supplies, lowering the prices of labor. Strong and durable, FRP slabs require little on-going maintenance.

6. Quality, Sturdy AND DURABLE

Composite slabs are very reliable and durable. They are confirmed to withstand excessive weather. Concrete trench covers will deteriorate with time and ultimately break up, whereas FRP slabs are rated to last in excess of 50 years.


Thanks to the convenience of set up and a lowered need for maintenance, composite slabs are the long-term economical alternative over concrete. Any additional costs at buy will probably be shortly offset by the repair and alternative costs associated with concrete. The lightweight slabs also reduces the manpower and equipment required to finish maintenance duties, additional decreasing on-going costs.

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Tekab Company Limited

Petroleum products (PPs) consist of complex chemical mixtures, mainly hydrocarbons. Their composition varies considerably with source and use. Inappropriate manual handling and use of PPs, in countries like Nigeria, results in excessive skin contact with the potential for hazard to health. There has been inadequate evidence to categorise diesel, kerosene and hydraulic oil as human carcinogens and there is limited evidence for their toxicity and carcinogenicity in experimental animals. We compared the hepatotoxicity and clastogenicity of diesel, petrol or hydraulic oil with that of sodium arsenite (Na(2)AsO(2)) in mice. Our findings showed that these PPs are able to inducing gamma-glutamyl transferase (gammaGT) activity within the serum and liver to levels comparable with that induced by Na(2)AsO(2). Mice treated with individual PPs have elevated mean liver and serum gammaGT at levels which can be significantly different from the values observed for the negative control group. Also, the person PPs alone have micronuclei formation induction activity much like Na(2)AsO(2). We found that treatment with Aloe vera gel before the PPs significantly reduced mean liver and serum gammaGT, and the mean number of micronuclei scored when compared with groups administered each of the PPs alone, supporting the presence of hepatoprotective components in Aloe vera.

The Impact Of GST On The Logistics Sector

Logistics plays an important role in the success of business. Companies that provide services and goods rely on logistics services for the timely delivery of their products to the buyer and the end-user. The arrival of much awaited GST bill promises to bring growth for the business sector.

Business owners are actually looking at a simplifying taxation process that is less time-consuming and promotes better business transactions. Another tangible benefit the GST offers to the corporate India is likely to return from reasonable logistics costs which might be reduced by a substantial margin.

Bigger warehouses and end market have driven logistics planning is more likely to result in meaningful cost savings over time. On account of entry taxes and heavy paperwork at state check posts, there’s a further 5-7 hour added to the transit time for inter-state transport of goods. Abolishment of entry tax and easier tax compliance procedures is prone to result in easier movement of products and the products on the nationwide level.” – Indian Express.

The transportation market within the country that is currently dominated by numerous unorganized transport service providers will witness the introduction and the emergence of an organized service provider as multiple taxes will not be added costs for businesses.

The Logistics service providers taking a look at business expansion and reliability as an essential a part of their brand value would also put money into adopting dependable and sophisticated technologies and time to time training of manpower in order to increase efficiency. Decrease in price of domestic goods wills encourages an improved product quality and a rise in the competitiveness of the Indian finished products, goods, and services. The identical applies to the international market.

People working in logistics industry encourage GST implementation within the system that can make the taxation a simple process. In addition, when a standard tax is paid for the transportation of goods applied for multiple states it helps in saving time for paying duties and taxes to the different states and the federal government authorities.

The logistics and transportation business owners follow different unethical practices in an effort to evade tax will even deteriorate once the GST gets rolled out. The main focus of the business organizations can be focused on efficiency rather than tax savings. The uniform tax regime will play a vital role to the subsequent level of growth, enabling the country to realize its potential as a world trading hub. Progress in the overall logistics sector from the perspective of trade would revolve around determining the success of ‘Make in India’ campaign launched by the federal government of India.

The positive effect of GST shall be faster transportation time and lower turnover time to deliver goods to the purchasers. A study revealed that GST may have a double positive impact on transport for the reason that logistics cost will come down and efficiency will increase both within India and exports. Certain taxes within the rail transportation department also will either be minimized or will get evaded, resulting in the reduction of load on the road transpositions. Although GST brings a way of relief for the logistics industry, but keeping it outside the umbrella of GST, makes it a disadvantage. Within the defense of the logistics industry, an example of the energy industry is a right fit.

Petroleum products are one of many essential parts of the industry, it would be a welcome move if petroleum was to be ‘non-exempt’ right from the start. This is able to enable various logistics businesses to avail the credit of the petroleum products used in the course of facilitating and giving the logistics services to the economy. Logistic costs are expected to be decreased by 1.5% – 2.00% of sales. Due to optimization of warehouses, it leads to the lower inventory costs.

This system is arrange across the country in different states avoiding paying 2% corporate sales tax. Also, the system is designed to phase out of inter-state sales tax. There’s immense scope for optimization of costs. Thus, we see how some great benefits of GST outweigh the disadvantages.

Make the perfect use of an opportunity of getting your GST registration done by the experts. As well as, if you have the GST Registration done and searching forward to GST Return Filing? Then take our help and get one of the best service at competitive rates in the market. Our business aims at achieving client satisfaction by providing top grade services at competitive pricing which can be delivered on time.

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Printed Boxes Can be Specially Made

chloro-toluene tower 72 meters

Printed boxes will be easily obtained from manufacturers. These companies offer both standard sizes and made to order sizes depending on what their clients need. They are able to work with their clients to get the main points right on how the exterior of the box should look.

These manufacturers will provide products to businesses of every kind. They could have clients that need heavy duty boxes to hold items which might be heavier than average. They might even be able to provide small boxes which are specially designed in specific shapes for small items. They can provide solutions for individuals who must ship multiple amounts of small, fragile items like computer part or electronics parts. A lot of them provide a variety of different corrugated boxes for clients all over the world.

The design staff at the manufacturer often provides the design for the box. Package design is a graphic design specialty and many who know this craft attended schools to learn to specialize in it. Creative people can often find many attractive solutions for packaging for the companys clients, as they’re skilled in using the varied dimensions used in the assorted products. They can many times work with the clients to make a suitable design or they will provide several samples to point out to the client. Sometimes they may work with another graphics team such because the one on the clients company.

Printed shipping boxes are a typical item that features graphics. These identify the items in side as being a product from a particular company. These can sometimes serve as additional advertising for a corporation if they are eye catching and attractive in style. These can help establish a companys name to others outside the companys normal sphere of influence.

Other products that include graphics and printed design might be ones that hold individual items corresponding to gift products. Sometimes companies that are just starting out will get new designs for boxes to package their items in. They could have colors, logos and fonts they need to use and may provide this stuff to the box manufacturers design team. Many times they will have a complete product line that will need items in numerous styles and sizes.

Many of these manufacturers are switching over from petroleum based inks for these products to ones which might be vegetable oil based. These inks may come from plants like linseed, corn or soybeans. These may also help reduce the toxins that will have normally been used in the inks for printed boxes.

For more information on Printed Boxes, please visit our website.

Ideas Concerning Wet Suits Throughout The Triathlon Race

chemical solvent storage tank yihai kerryWet suits are typically a private choice in Triathlon competitions unless you are a member of any team that mandates a specific type of suits. Nevertheless, triathlon as a whole is an individual sport which allows participants to choose their personal gears, equipments and suits.

The major gears to one side, the wet suit plays one of the main roles in letting you win or lose the game. Sometimes, it creates the produce or break momentum. The mile you might have earned over the swim period may become lost only because your wet suit failed you.

The perfect wet suits are those that fit snugly into the actual athlete’s body. This may occasionally sound easy yet the differences are told with the unique body build the racer has. People are sometimes fooled with the impression that the wet suit won’t fit correctly when within the mean time, it has the proper fit saying “the accommodate is too tight

Proper fitting can’t actually get by standard measures. However, the general rule involving thumb dictates that generally there must never be almost any leaks in regions covering the neck, arms and the legs. While most wet suits work with the principle of entangling enough layer of water between the skin and the neoprene (which as well as is the standard number of fabric among racers), the space must not still allow a continuing flow of water.

The fit tells everthing. Most racers in the particular triathlon don’t get what’s so great about wet suits because sometimes the suit doesn’t fit well or it doesn’t wear it right.

When wearing your soaked suit, on practice or through the competition, it’s best that you simply leave your socks about. This can act as a lubricant for the entrance of the feet on the holes of the suit. To stop your fingernail or toenails from snagging or stretches the neoprene, a very delicate product, you can use non-petroleum products to supply the removal easier in the course of the transition stage.

Make certain that the actual crotch fits snugly as this might tell the difference. Without its proper place, the upper part with the wet suit may suit poorly. Once you are at ease the pants, the next thing you would like to do is to secure the top of suit. It’s just some form of matter of pulling it and sliding your arms in to the holes.

If you are by utilizing a full wet suit, you have to secure to it that there are not any space between your armpit and in addition the neoprene.

Reduce Chitosan also is made up of an all-natural bean extract that generally inhibits alpha-amylase activity. This prevents the dysfunction of dietary starches in to glucose, allowing in the stop that carb from starch to pass through the system unchanged.

Further claims noted that Reduce Chitosan could be a non-stimulant, all-natural nutritional ingredient resulting from the white kidney bean. PBL even said that Reduce is certainly the first nutritional ingredient which has been clinically and scientifically that can neutralize starch that is normally found in your beloved foods like breads, pasta, rice, crackers, corn and potatoes.

How Does Reduce Function?

Your body converts carbs by extracting the carbohydrate molecule together with alpha-amylase, which is an enzyme produced in the pancreas. These calories are either burned off through exercise or saved as fat cells regarding future use. Unfortunately, this may occasionally lead to help weight gain as inactivity implies that these stored fat cells accumulate.

Chitosan then binds to a few of the dietary fat that anyone consume and removes it from your body rather than allowing it to be absorbed. This can be used for adding fiber for a diet.

The chitosan ingredient utilized in PBL’s Reduce Chitosan is considered unsurpassed in its top quality and purity. It goes through a procedure called deacetylation, which refers to removing the acetyl groups. What’s more, Lipase, a digestive enzyme is added to scale back Chitosan in order to help in emulsifying the fats you ingest, making it a superior fat absorber. Note that Reduce can be fortified with Calcium and likewise Vitamin C.

Tips on how to Remove Vaseline From A Child’s Hair

chlorine factoryThe results of the result of putting petroleum on a kid’s dry, chapped skin and accidentally getting some in your kid’s hair, or simply a mischievous child who got into the Vaseline behind your back, Vaseline within the hair could be difficult to remove. Due to the petroleum jelly’s greasy texture, washing the hair with shampoo can remove a number of the residue but can leave the hair looking stringy and greasy. You will must blot away the excess and apply cornstarch to sop up the greasiness before removal.

Step 1
Blot the hair with facial tissue to assist sop up some of the greasiness, suggests Just fold a facial tissue into quarters and press down lightly all around the hair until you see a visible improvement in the quantity of Vaseline on the hair. Discard the tissues as soon as they get greasy and begin a brand new one so you’re not spreading greasiness around the hair.

Step 2
Run a plastic fine-tooth comb through the sections of affected hair. This will remove a few of the Vaseline that clings to the strands. After each pass, rinse the comb off the remove residue, says beauty website Beyond Jane. Continue combing until all of the plain areas of Vaseline buildup are gone, and you are only left with a greasy residue.

Step 3
Sprinkle cornstarch over the affected areas in your child’s hair. Cornstarch will help to absorb the greasiness. Just add enough so the areas are covered with a light dusting of cornstarch, then pat the cornstarch into the hair so it absorbs the Vaseline. You can even use cornmeal for this step.

Step 4
Wash the cornstarch out of your child’s hair with a clarifying shampoo. This may mean using a more adult shampoo over your child’s usual gentle, tear-free formula, so take care when you’re washing and watch out to avoid your kid’s eyes. If you do not have a clarifying shampoo available, try washing your child’s hair with liquid dish detergent, which strips the hair of excess oil to get it clean, recommends Fisher Price.

Facial tissue


Clarifying shampoo

Dish detergent

Plastic comb
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4 New Substances Added To List Of Carcinogens

Photo by M. Swenson Outside Clinton Global Initiative forum in Denver June 2014, sign by the Question Alliance notes the disconnect between the Clintons’ promotion of “free trade” agreements like TPP and professed concerns by the Clinton Global Initiative about wealth inequity.

Just as President Bill Clinton promoted NAFTA within the ’90s, proclaiming it the precursor to reduced deficits and increased jobs, in a 2012 appearance in Hanoi then-Secretary of State Hillary Clinton pitched the Trans-Pacific Partnership, invoking lower trade barriers, and improved labor conditions and environmental protections. Twenty years after President Clinton signed the NAFTA trade treaty, Global Trade Watch reports a 450 percent increase within the U.S. trade deficit, resulting within the export of almost a million jobs, and downward pressure on wages.

Conflicts Between Free Trade and a Recovering Middle Class

The Washington ruling class often speak out of both sides of their mouths. The political focus in 2015 has shifted abruptly, in word if not in deed, to the middle class. That beleaguered segment, largely ignored for decades, became a central talking point in the president’s State of the Union address, attended by a variety of invited working people. Even Republican presidential candidates are giving lip service to the lower economic class, though they have long cloaked issues of economic benefits for the wealthy with the pretense of concern for the middle class, e.g., progressive taxation of all wealth, including capital gains, will “hurt working families.”

Whilst they commiserate with the middle class, corporate Republicans and Democrats are poised to get behind another “free trade” deal that would hold U.S. democracy, taxpayers and workers for ransom.

President Obama’s State of the Union conveyed conflicting messages. A main theme of the address was growing wealth inequity, the necessity for the wealthy to pay their fair share of taxes, and the economically depressed middle class. Such admirable intent was negated when he urged both parties to “give me trade promotion authority to protect American workers, with strong new trade deals from Asia to Europe that aren’t just free, but fair.”

Urging bipartisan support for Trade Promotion Authority, a “fast track” bill to bypass constitutional congressional oversight and speed passage of the secretive Trans Pacific Partnership trade deal (more far-reaching than NAFTA and bound to further undermine jobs and manufacturing) the president telegraphed his support of the corporate agenda. Only five of 29 chapters of the TPP have anything to do with trade; the remainder amount to a huge corporate power grab.

While he acknowledged that “past trade deals haven’t always lived as much as the hype,” President Obama cloaked the intent of passing yet another trade deal written in secret by hundreds of corporate lobbyists, in language that asserted “protection” of and “fairness” to American workers and small businesses. Indeed, workers and small businesses have been particularly crushed under “free trade” deals that masquerade as populist, but are still more corporate giveaways.

Also contradicted by Obama’s promotion of world trade agreements is his expressed sympathy for undocumented immigrants and immigrant children. Author and journalist David Bacon notes that such trade agreements have consistently established economic rules and relationships for the benefit of large corporations and investors, while exacerbating conditions of poverty – low wages, high unemployment, export of jobs, privatization, and the destruction of unions. The last word effect is displacement of populations, forced to migrate elsewhere for work. He observes that for the reason that 1994 passage of NAFTA, the variety of Mexican migrants in the U.S. has swollen from 4 and a half million to over 12 million today. With still more “free trade” agreements on the horizon just like the Trans-Atlantic Partnership and Trans-Pacific Partnership, Bacon sees scarce chance that real sources of poverty and immigration might be addressed.

As described by Professor of Economics Bill Black, so-called free trade deals do the alternative of what’s promised – draining jobs, exacerbating wealth inequity, gutting the middle class and increasing U.S. trade deficits. Drafted in secret by lobbyists to the biggest corporations and trade associations, whose identities remain unknown, such trade deals are written for the good thing about corporations’ bottom lines, at the expense of individuals’s safety, health and democracy. The public and congress members are routinely denied access to content. Black calls the method “an outrage of democratic government.”

Bipartisan Betrayal of the People

In the wake of the 2014 elections, some perceive that many in the Republican-controlled congress are eager to achieve corporate goals, such as passage of “free trade” agreements. For all of their animus toward President Obama and consequent congressional inaction, majority leader Sen. Mitch McConnell (R-Ky) and house speaker Rep. John Boehner have cited trade as one area where the Republican congressional majority is willing to work with the president. The new Senate Finance Committee chair, Rep. Orrin Hatch (R-Ut) has already co-sponsored a quick Track Trade Promotion Authority bill that might expedite passage of the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) and bypass constitutional congressional oversight. In a January 27 hearing before Hatch’s committee, U.S. Trade Representative Michael Froman testified for the TPP, interrupted by protestors urging truth-telling concerning the deal.

Expressing alignment with corporate Republicans on the trade pact, President Obama has proclaimed the TPP “the model for trade within the 21st century.” The TPP encompasses much of Asia. The Trans-Atlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TAFTA) is the European version of the TPP.

Harper’s Magazine publisher John R. MacArthur observes that the Democratic Party has essentially abandoned its historical role as champions of workers, and instead has moved to the suitable, even as the political center has moved far to the proper. Consequently, both Presidents Clinton and Obama have aligned themselves with Wall St., corporate profits, the exportation of jobs, and so-called “free trade” agreements like the TPP.

Negotiated with 12 Pacific Rim nations (with more projected to be added) the TPP is alleged to cover 40 percent of world trade, dwarfing the results of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), CAFTA, the Permanent Normalized Trade Agreement with China (PNTR), and the latest South Korean trade pact – all contributing to massive job and manufacturing losses, expanding wealth inequality and growing U.S. trade deficits. Promoted by and for the elite, “free trade” deals since NAFTA have seen the share of national income to the richest 10 percent rise by 24 percent, to the highest 1 percent, by 58 percent.

Observed Bill Moyers, “The post-NAFTA era has been marked by growing inequality, declining job security and new leverage for corporations to attack government regulations enacted in the general public interest.

Sen. Bernie Sanders describes the TPP as “a part of a world race to the bottom to boost the profits of large corporations and Wall St. by outsourcing jobs; undercutting worker rights; dismantling labor, environmental, health, food safety and financial laws.” The trade deal would also free banksters from oversight; pad the underside line of pharmaceutical companies by extending patents and consequently reducing access to medications worldwide; ban Buy American policies needed to create green jobs and rebuild our economy; and invite more unsafe foods and products into the U.S.

Corporate Media Cheerleads, Obfuscates Trade Deals

The White House Office of the Press Secretary has done its part to corrupt dialogue across the Trans Pacific Partnership, ironically pushing “bipartisan trade promotion authority to guard our workers, protect our environment, and open new markets to new goods stamped ‘Made in the USA.'”

When bothering to say the Trans Pacific Partnership, media almost always names it a beneficial “free-trade pact.” CBS News hails the potential of “fast-track authority to jump-start negotiations, to open a Japanese agriculture market “worth $12 billion” to the U.S. The “free-trade pact,” they are saying, “could transform agriculture” in Japan, which they judge, is “now dominated by tiny, inefficient farmers.”

Corporate media invariably quotes a corporate shill, like the U.S. Chamber of Commerce praising NAFTA as a precursor to the TPP. In one-sided reporting, CBS News quotes the U.S. Chamber of Commerce which contends that NAFTA has generated “vast new opportunities for U.S. workers, farmers, consumers and businesses… and trade with Canada and Mexico supports tens of thousands of jobs in each of the 50 states.”

Contrast those U.S. “news” reports with David Bacon’s frank assessment of NAFTA, a deal that only a venal corporation could love:

For starters, NAFTA permitted U.S. corporations – Archer Daniels Midland, Continental Grain Company, Cargill – to dump U.S.-subsidized corn onto the Mexican market, putting Mexican growers out of business. Bacon relates that NAFTA also led to the privatization of Mexican state-owned enterprises, resulting within the lack of hundreds of thousands of jobs. The Mexican railway system was privatized, costing tens of thousands of Mexicans jobs after it was taken over by a U.S. company. The Mexican government privatized the power and light company in central Mexico, dissolving the corporate, firing its 44,000 employees and destroying their union, effectively setting it up for ultimate purchase by a foreign company. Consequent to destruction of the union came lower wages and deteriorating working conditions. Wreaking disastrous effects on Mexico’s poor, the one beneficiaries were U.S. and European corporations and Mexico’s wealthy elite.

Investor State Dispute Settlement (ISDS) – Special Right of Multinational Corporations to Sue Governments, Overturn Laws

Among many onerous aspects of trade agreements like the Trans-Pacific Partnership are the ISDS, Investor State Dispute Settlement features. Defined as a special legal right exercised only by multinational corporations and those who spend money on a foreign country, ISDS grants them unadulterated power to undermine democracy and challenge any domestic law, regulation (related to health, environment, labor, food safety, etc.) judicial or administrative ruling or government decision they dislike that might allegedly impact their “expected future profits” in any country where they do business.

Foreign investors have challenged anything from “plain packaging rules for cigarettes to denials of permits for toxic waste dumps to increases in the minimum wage.” Merely threatening a case may prompt the withdrawal of a law or regulation, due to the legal costs of defense. Challenges could also be brought in international tribunals, bypassing the U.S. court system, before a panel of private ‘arbitrators’ who are usually not democratically elected or appointed, and are not subject to stringent conflict of interest rules – often corporate lawyers. Tribunals may require taxpayer compensation to corporations for their alleged lost profits.

Pending claims based on past trade agreements amount to over $14 billion, most challenging environmental laws in plenty of countries. Claims against governments brought by multinational corporations include: Metaclad, a U.S. corporation was awarded greater than $15 million when they sued the Mexican federal government over a neighborhood government’s decision to deny a permit to operate a toxic waste dump. A French company is suing Egypt over a number of labor market measures, including an increase in the minimum wage. A Swedish corporation is suing Germany over its decision to phase out nuclear power, and Ecuador was ordered to pay more than $2 billion to Occidental Petroleum.

So many reasons this trade deal is toxic and should be scuttled. Our legislators deserve a lot of phone calls, saying “No” to a fast track bill for another bad trade deal – expect it to be pushed at any time by corporate lobbyists and their congressional advocates. Instead of corporations, trade deals should serve the people and create well-paying jobs. A toll-free number connects to any congress member: 1-866-338-1015.

Electric Car Charging Stations In Ontario

Exciting new developments in the automotive world are helping to hurry along the development and sale of all-electric vehicles all over the world. Nissan has recently unleashed its all-electric Nissan Leaf compact car, and Chevrolet is moving forward with its elect-gas hybrid Volt sedan. For Ontario motorists, this automotive revolution will probably be backed up by charging stations throughout the province.

Every massive new change in how we use our vehicles has to start out somewhere, and in Ontario it’s starting in eight cities with electric charging stations. Those cities include Toronto, Vaughan, Markham, Barrie, Ajax and Bowmanville.

Unlike major gas stations, which may sometimes handle as much as sixteen vehicles at one time, Ontario’s electric car charging stations are capable of charging on two cars at any given time. However, it is important to keep in mind that these stations are currently a “proof of concept.” In the intervening time, they’re open only to corporate fleets of electric cars owned by Ontario’s electric utility companies. Because the demand for electric car charging stations increases, their size and capacity will necessarily increase relative to that demand.

Indeed, demand is more likely to skyrocket in the approaching years. The electric Ford Focus model, the Chevrolet Volt, and the Nissan Leaf are all expected to become available in Canada sometime later in 2011; Ontario has set the ambitious goal of getting 1 in 20 automobiles on province highways powered by electricity in 2020.

To ensure that this demand is met adequately, the current charging stations are being rigorously tested and monitored for performance and efficiency. It’s important to do not forget that, unlike gasoline, and electric charge takes quite a lot of time to build up. And an all-electric vehicle has a reasonably sizable battery to fill, with a variety of up to 340 miles on a single charge.

To compensate for this fact, the utility companies are monitoring their electric vehicles battery levels and charging rates at Ontario’s eight electric charging stations. They’re taking a look at information equivalent to how quickly the battery drains in real-world driving conditions, how quickly it can recover its charge at a charging station, and how costly it’s to complete a charge on the road.

Because electricity differs from oil in that it comes from a generation plant rather than a barrel, generation costs at a utility plant must be taken into consideration when charging for an electric fill-up. These costs can be quite high at current levels, because the market is still adjusting to the concept of electric charging rates.

To assist offset this large costs, the utility companies are working on a system where electric car users would be capable of skip the charging process altogether and instead swap out the car’s drained battery for a brand new, fully charged model. It would decrease the period of time spent at a charging station and allow the station to charge a flat rate for battery replacement that could be consistent across the board and highly affordable.

Because a battery swap wouldn’t place a heavy burden on generation companies, the charging station could charge the battery on its own time, at a slower (more affordable) rate, and pass that lower rate on to customers.

No matter what the ultimate business model, these eight prototype stations across Ontario are a promising sign of a future that moves beyond pricy petroleum products. Only market forces and scientific advancement will determine what an electric charging station eventually looks like, but this preview is a good approach to get early insight into the method.

Presidency Sets Three-year Self-sufficiency Target For Petroleum Products Nigeria News Headlines

The Minister of State for Budget and National Planning, Mrs. Zainab Ahmed, yesterday gave the assurance that the country can be self-sufficient in refined petroleum products by year 2019.

Speaking during the primary Nigerians economic stakeholders summit held yesterday at the Sheraton Hotels, Abuja, Ahmed expressed optimism that the country would have also attained the status of a net exporter of refined petroleum products by 2019.

She further cited on-going effort to ensure the passage of the revised Petroleum Industry Bill (PIB) as a part of efforts to reposition the petroleum sector of the economy.

Ahmed also disclosed that a Strategic Implementation Plan (SIP) aimed at ensuring effective implementation of the 2016 budget had also been put in place, saying that the initiative would surely facilitate the rebound of the economy.

Meanwhile, Speaker of the House of Representatives, Mr. Yakubu Dogara who declared open the event, reiterated the desire of the lower legislative chamber to ensure diversification of the economy.

Represented by the Chairman of the House Committee on Banking and Finance, Mr. Jones Onyeriri, Dogara said that the goal was in keeping with the Legislative Agenda of the Eighth Assembly of the House.

Yorkies And Poisoning

Prevention is the most effective method to avoid a poisoning incident. Make yourself aware of the dangers to your Yorkie and have emergency medical treatment supplies on hand. I suggest having an at-home emergency medical kit handy and stocked up in case of any type of emergency.


There are 2 varieties of poisoning to watch for – contact poisoning (on the skin or eyes, etc) and internal poisoning (ingesting a toxic or harmful substance). For a contact poisoning, the symptoms are generally burning, itching, redness, swelling, or other obvious signs of skin irritation or chemical burns. The symptoms of internal poisoning in Yorkies are varied, depending on the substance ingested. Generally, the symptoms are vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and related symptoms.


If you happen to need emergency assistance, get to your vet ASAP. If that’s not possible, you can do your best to treat at home. Step one is to identify the particular substance that your Yorkie has come in touch with – this will aid in treatment.

For a contact poisoning, you need to completely wash off any poison. Do this by flushing the world that came in touch with the poison for half-hour with large amounts of water. Then, give your Yorkie an entire bath with lukewarm water. Even if the substance your Yorkie came into contact with will not be skin-irritating, you continue to must completely wash the realm – your Yorkie could lick the area an ingest some of the poison.

For an internal poisoning, generally the smartest thing to do is to induce vomiting as soon as you’ll be able to after the substance has been ingested. Do not induce vomiting in the following instances:

– your Yorkie has already vomited

– there’s evidence of neurological involvement (stumbling, trouble breathing, etc)

– your Yorkie is unconscious

– in case your Yorkie has swallowed something sharp that might lodge in the esophagus or could

tear the stomach

– if the ingested poison is an acid, alkali, cleaning product, household chemical, petroleum product, or any substance that the label says “Do not induce vomiting” In these instances, the substance could cause burns within the throat and vomiting could create more harm. Instead, get to the vet ASAP and give your Yorkie milk or water at 30 mL per 6 pounds of body weight.

You probably have determined that it’s essential to induce vomiting, the most effective solution to do it’s with a 3% solution of hydrogen peroxide at 1/2 teaspoon per 5 pounds of body weight (a good thing to keep inside your emergency medical kit). Repeat the dosage every 15 – 20 minutes, as much as 3 times, until your Yorkie vomits. Walking around after administering each dose will help further induce vomiting.

Don’t use Ipecac unless specifically directed to do so by your veterinarian. Ipecac can be dangerous in dogs.

After your Yorkie vomits, it will be significant to forestall further absorption of any remaining poison in the stomach. You may do this by giving activated charcoal or a mixture of milk and egg whites.

The simplest treatment is activated charcoal, which you will get in compressed 5 gram tablets. ½ tablet per 5 pounds of body weight is the standard dose. There is a liquid activated charcoal product available, however it is absolutely messy and difficult to get into a Yorkie without the assistance of a stomach tube. So, get the tablets for emergency use at home and keep them in your Yorkie’s emergency medical kit.

If you don’t have charcoal available, you can provide a mix of milk and egg whites to coat the stomach and prevent absorption of remaining poison. 1/8 cup of milk and 1/8 cup of egg whites per 5 pounds of body weight is the dosage. Use a plastic syringe to administer the mixture inside your Yorkie’s cheek.

After any at-home treatment, get to your vet as soon as you’ll be able to for further treatment.

What’s Poisonous:

The list of things which can be poisonous to dogs is very extensive, and I am going to try to list off as many of them as I can.

Household and Environmental Dangers:

-Common pain relievers like Advil (ibuprofen) and Tylenol (acetaminophen)
-Other human drugs, both over the counter and prescription (when in doubt, induce vomiting)
-Rodent poisons like anticoagulants and hypercalcemic agents
-Poison baits resembling those for rodents and snails
-Garbage – particularly rotting food contaminated with mold or bacteria
-Most household chemicals like cleaning products, deodorant, hair coloring, moth balls, nail polish, etc
-Petroleum products like gasoline, kerosene, turpentine, etc
-Lead (can be present in things like fishing weights, some paint, linoleum, drywall, batteries and other products)
-Zinc (found in post-1982 pennies, hardware, nuts and bolts, and other things)
-Toad and Salamander poisoning – the Colorado River toad (native to the Southwest and Hawaii), the marine toad (native to Florida), and the California newt (native to California)

Food Dangers:

-Chocolate (as little as 4 pounces of baker’s chocolate might be lethal to a Yorkie)
-Raisins and Grapes (as little as 1 ounce can cause kidney failure in Yorkies)
-Macadamia nuts (as little as 1/2 ounce could cause temporary paralysis in a Yorkie)
-Garlic (1/2 teaspoon can destroy red blood cells in a Yorkie)
-Onions and Onion Powder
-Active Yeast and Raw Bread Dough
-Wild Cherry
-Balsam Pear
-Japanese Plum
-Coffee grounds
-Tomato and Potato leaves and stems
-Pear and Peach Kernels
-Mushrooms (if also toxic to humans)
-Xylitol (an artificial sweetener found in some sugar-free gums)

Plant Dangers:

Indoor plants that can be toxic:

Arrowhead vine
Asparagus fern
Boston ivy
Calla or arum lily
Creeping Charlie
Creeping fig
Crown of thorns
Dembcane (diffenbachia)
Elephant’s ear
Emerald duke
Heart leaf (philodendron)
Ivy species
Jerusalem cherry
Marble queen
Mother-in-law plant
Parlor ivy
Pot mum
Pothos or devil’s lily
Red princess
Ripple ivy
Saddle leaf (philodendron)
Spider mum
Split leaf (philondendron)
Sprangeri fern
Tuberous begonia
Umbrella plant
Weeping fig

Outdoor plants that can be toxic:

American yew
Angels’ trumpet
Azalea (rhododendron)
Balsam pear
Bird-of-paradise bush
Bittersweet woody
Castor bean
Dutchman’s breeches
English holly
English yew
Ground cherry
Horse chestnut
Indian tobacco
Indian turnip
Japanese plum
Larkspur woody
Matrimony vine
May apple
Mescal bean
Mock orange
Monkey pod
Morning glory
Nux vomica
Poison hemlock
Poke weed
Rain tree
Skunk cabbage
Sunburned potato
Tomato vine
Water hemlock
Western black locust yew
Wild cherry

More Help:

If your Yorkie has possibly been poisoned and you are unsure of what to do, the ASPCA has an Animal Poison Control Center available 24 hours a day. Their hotline number is (888) 426-4435. There’s a $60 consultation fee per incident, and the fee could also be applied to your credit card. There can be come great info on their website at

Author Box Sarah Henery has 1 articles online
Sarah Henery is the manager of Yorkies of Walnut Hill ( ). For more details about Yorkies, please visit for more articles and tips for the Yorkshire terrier owner.

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Publisher: Adrian Food poisoning and Gastroenteritis are two sorts of illness which have very similar symptoms to each other, and may cause symptoms of diarrhoea, vomiting and sickness. Should you suffer food poisoning on holiday, you possibly can claim compensation while you return to the UK, providing the illness was attributable to the negligence of the hotel or the tour operator. Arsenic Poisoning
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Publisher: Kelsey Libby Black mold or toxic mold is a fungus which grows on moist or damp surfaces as a powdery or downy substance. Along with humidity, it also requires moderate temperature and adequate amount of light to grow. In home, it targets the surfaces like walls, wood, carpets, and leather goods similar to sofa, purses and clothes. Mold also loves to grow on all kinds of foods. Food Poisoning Treatment and Home Remedies for Food Poisoning
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Publisher: Marcus Samuels The fridge can only lengthen a food’s lifespan for less than a brief period in time. We will never say when we’re going to suffer from this so we must always be prepared. Listed below are tips about what to do when you are food poisoned. Poison Ivy Treatments to Avoid
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Publisher: Steve R Hunt Salmonella is the genius identify for a large selection (through two,500) of bacteria. Each sort is likely to be distinguished by its specific protein coating. The sorts are incredibly comparable in all other aspects. Salmonella bacteria are flagellated, rod-shaped, Gram stain-negative, and are recognized to trigger illness in people, birds (specially poultry), and animals globally. The Symptoms of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning
Publisher: Alton Terrell Carbon monoxide poisoning is named the results of the continued exposure to the burning of the certain carbon-based fuels. Any such gas is odorless and colorless in order that it could potentially leak into your private home and it causes physical damage to you and your family, even without realizing it. In case you are experiencing any of the symptoms that associated with this poisoning, it is essential for you to get to your doctor or hospital immediately. Understanding Food Poisoning
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The help of The aid of A Liable Propane Service And Know Its Advantages

Propane refers to reliable, safer, and efficient alternatives for various electrical appliances and it’s applied for reducing electrical consumptions. Besides, it was cheaper selections which are perfect for residences wanting to cut back carbon footprints and protect environments. Liquefied petroleum gas refers to alternatives of traditional components due to its higher octane contents.

Additionally, it pertained to odorless or colorless components which condense into gaseous elements where those scents are connected to odorant generally known as ethyl mercaptan which was incorporated in distinguishing leaks. While other electronic devices are providing warmer surroundings, Hill city propane service provides consistent air quality for no less than 115 degrees. Apart from that, electricity demands great deals of effort, time, and money to heat water.

But, it has the aptitude to complete that objective within twenty minutes which is essential and efficient selections for supplying electricity to residences. It is classified as clean resources underneath the 1990 Clean Air Act and Energy Policy Act of 1992 because it burns cleaner in comparison with other fossil fuels. Along with that, its capability to contaminate soil and groundwater is eliminated.

It was armed with controlled carbon levels which generated minimal emissions and it lessens petroleum usage when is created as by products of natural gas generation. In the event you planned to sustain environmentally friendly structures then it became reliable or powerful solutions. Amid emergency circumstances or power is disturbed, your propane powered devices can still work.

It becomes efficient and better options which guarantee comfort when necessary. An only condition necessary for preserving its functions, performance, and efficiency through conducting scheduled preservation. Along with your utilization, you’re advised that its chambers are only charged with as much as eighty percent of the mass which permitted enlargements.

Furthermore, it has the potential to expand when made sensitive to extreme hot temperatures. Commonly, its tanks are integrated with natural gas components and its weight is twenty times more puncture resistant when compared to methanol, ethanol, and gasoline. When encountering leakages and other issues, additional odorants assist you in determining its presence.

Its smell are identical rotting eggs that are capable of alerting you about any issues and carbon monoxide sensors may offer enhanced safety measures. Besides, those appliances may produce carbon monoxide, but its sensors are appointed to alerting you about its presence when it reached highest stages. For maintaining its efficiency, you must complete annual maintenance duties.

Bending machine

On account of this, it insures its enhanced performance, efficiency, and functions. It is seen as more inexpensive replacements for electronic devices where it becomes more effective in comparison to its modernized counterparts. Other tankless water heaters might be armed with efficiency levels for not less than ninety four percent.

Nearly all clients have associated that material with outdoor smokers, but it has the aptitude to power various appliances. Along with that, you may apply that resource for residential heating and on boilers and it offers more comfort and eliminates issue produced by wood burning furnaces. Ovens, ranges, and cloth dryers become applicable with that component, therefore searching for its distributor is advised to make sure comfort.

When you are looking for the facts about Hill City propane service, come to our web pages online today. More details are available at now.

The World’s Biggest Sports Team

medium salt distillation column

Sport has an indefinable magical quality. It transcends common divisions and national borders. It brings people together in a singular way. We only have to look at the outpouring of grief across the globe when legendary boxer, Muhammad Ali, passed in June. Ali was known to many as ‘the best’, however the greatness of sport goes far beyond the amazing feats of strength and endurance demonstrated by Ali in his day, and sportsmen and women in ours. The unrivalled passion of fans is a defining think about making sport truly great, and demonstrates how sport can evoke emotion in everyone, bringing people together from all walks of life.

Cast your mind back to the 2012 Olympic Games. One of my fondest memories of the London games is the cheery army of volunteers – our ‘Games Makers’ – standing proudly in their magenta tops helping locals and visitors alike. They epitomized the collective spirit of the event.

Rallying people behind their nations, heroes or clubs, there are few things that unite and drive emotion in the identical way as sport.

But sport is at its best when it stands for something bigger. When it captures that keenness to unite and energize people behind a bigger cause. Campaigns like ‘Let’s Kick Racism Out of Football’ and Unicef’s partnerships with FC Barcelona and the All Blacks show this. And the impact of United Through Sport, who work with disadvantaged children to combat social, health and educational issues through sport, is a shining example of what might be achieved once we put our minds to it.

Increasingly we’re seeing sport get behind another great social challenge of today – climate change. London’s Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park, where 98% of construction waste was diverted from landfill, shows us what sustainable sport can seem like. As does Sir Ben Ainslie’s Land Rover BAR team headquarters, the first professional British sports team headquarters to carry a BREEAM Excellent rating for sustainable buildings. The facility has 432 solar PV panels generating 130MWh per year, and provides 100% of its electricity from renewable sources.

The actual potential for the wedding between sustainability and sports though is not only carbon neutral kits and circular economy stadiums, but what we are able to inspire fans themselves to do.

Think about it. If every Manchester United fan internationally switched to renewable energy, we might be saving mega tonnes of carbon. If every Usain Bolt aficionado ran to work, instead of driving, we’d take hundreds of thousands of cars off the roads.

So the true question is that this: what is the magic formula that gets fans rallying behind these global issues? What’s the tipping point where we get them to come back on the journey with us around climate change?

Inspiring fans to live, work and play more sustainably is what the 100% Sport Campaign is all about. Championed by BT, 100% Sport has learned a couple of things about engaging fans along the way.

1. Leading by example

Former Arsenal midfielder Mathieu Flamini is a singular ambassador for sustainability in sport. Flamini co-founded GF Biochemicals, an alternative energy company that produces levulinic acid (LA), a clean solvent sourced from biomass that can replace a bunch of petroleum-based products. His story has reached millions around the globe – setting an example to all fans.

Similarly, Forest Green Rovers is committed to becoming a sustainable sports club, with low-energy flood lights and solar panels along the stadium roof with 45kW capacity. And Manchester City has produced the UK’s first eco-programmes made from recycled materials, whilst local rival Manchester United has created a ‘Go the gap’ pitch made from the recycled rubber of 2,200 tyres. We need more of this sort of leadership.

2. Call to action

Sports stars hold enormous influence in today’s society, and all can employ this influence to tackle big issues, and encourage fans to do the identical.

Ben Ainslie is doing just that with us here at BT, fronting the launch of the 100% Sport campaign and dealing to set the standard for sustainability in sport with his British America’s Cup team, Land Rover BAR. And Australian rugby international David Pocock is another sports star using his profile to inspire fans to live more sustainable lives. In the lead up to the 2015 World Cup Final, the biggest game of Pocock’s life thus far, he put aside the overused big game rhetoric and instead used his time with the media to inspire rugby fans to take responsibility for climate change: “We’d like action and we’re not seeing action…it is all of our futures.”

3. Technology

Technology around sport can be the key to unlocking action on climate change amongst sports fans.

Arsenal FC has fitted flushless toilets into The Emirates stadium, in addition to voltage optimisation equipment and LED lights which have reduced power use by as much as 20%. And the Phoenix Open on golf’s PGA Tour has set a bench-mark for sustainability at sports events – 100% of all waste generated throughout the week-long event, attended by greater than half 1,000,000 fans, is re-used through methods like waste-to-energy facilities.

For the whole summer, the spotlight was rightly on sport. Here at BT, we want to place the spotlight on sustainability, too. And through 100% Sport we’re asking fans to inform us how they #go100percent for a more sustainable world, whether that is by switching to renewable energy, increasing recycling or inventing new ways to travel to events. Because we know once we act as a team, we’re unstoppable.

Human Waste As a substitute Energy Source

liquid ammonia tankAll the the entire news buzz these days around renewable energies corresponding to solar and wind power, even harnessing the energy of ocean waves, one often neglected energy source is right under our noses, so to speak: human waste. It might not be as appealing or pleasant because the alternatives, but energy generation from human waste might be the most important of all. World population increases day by day together with demand for energy and resources, and resources become scarcer and more coveted. The one potential resource that may increase proportionate to population is our own waste. Feces and urine are abundant and readily available wherever there are humans. Currently vast quantities of energy made from fossil fuel combustion and (often potable) water are used to process said waste products. New projects in composting toilets, biogas harvesting, biofuels creation and even microbial fuel cells could allow us to reverse the cycle and benefit from this untapped resource.

Though skeptics believe that composting toilets will never be successful in the Western world, new technologies as well as old are getting used to solve two problems: how to treat our waste, and how to produce enough food without poisoning ourselves and our environment with expensive chemical fertilizers. The subsequent generation of composting toilets, reminiscent of that made by Clivus Multrum, are solving these problems and making the system more appealing to consumers. The low-flow composting toilets that they produce contain a basement level compost bin and service is included with the product. A way more low-tech version of the composting toilet is being used by the NGO Estamos in Africa. Although the organization’s aims are to improve sanitation and reduce illness, their programs are also helping small-scale farmers make a living. The organization provides composting toilets at no charge, and has greatly improved the standard of life for a lot of poor families. The organization’s director, Feliciano dos Santos, just won the 2008 Goldman Environmental Prize in Ecological Sanitation for this work.

Many countries have well-established methane-capture programs that use animal waste, resembling pig farms in Australia and cattle ranches within the United States. But what of the gas creation potential of human waste? Developing countries are pioneering this technology as a way to save lots of money and create renewable energy. With the help of the Heifer International Foundation, rural farmers in Uganda’s Mukono district are mixing human feces and urine with other biological waste comparable to water hyacinth and banana peels to create biogas, and using the byproduct to fertilize their fields. The biogas produced contains 60-90% methane, and is getting used for lighting, cooking and some engines, and many residents are improving their quality of life and rising above the poverty level. Likewise, Cyangugu prison in Rwanda is creating biogas from the excrement of its prisoners. The Kigali Institute of Science and Technology built the digester for the prison, which is using the resulting product to cook 50% of the prisoner’s meals, and saving $22,000 annually — a fantastic deal of cash in Rwanda. But developing countries aren’t the only ones profiting from human generated biogas. The Lions Gate Wastewater Treatment Plant in Vancouver, British Columbia, once the subject of a lawsuit regarding a violation of federal pollution laws, has piloted a $1.1 million project to harvest methane from the city’s sewage and feed it directly into the natural gas distribution system. The project, which is anticipated to be operational in 2009, projects a reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by 500 tonnes annually, and enough energy production to power 100 homes. An analogous project is underway in San Antonio, Texas.

Current debates surrounding plant-based biofuels give attention to competition between food crops and biofuels crops, and lots of experts worry that top demand for biofuels will exacerbate current food shortage problems. Several projects have tackled this issue by creating biofuels from algae grown on human waste. One of these is Aquaflow Bionomic Corporation, which harvests the algae used within the sewage treatment ponds in Malborough, New Zealand. The “green crude” they create from the algae can be used for all crude-oil applications akin to gasoline, diesel and plastics. In a more direct process, a Canadian company called Dynamotive Energy Systems Corporation is feeding human waste directly into a biofuels generation system using a “fast pyrolysis process”. The system achieves 80% efficiency by recuperating waste gasses and heat from the process, and the top product, BioOil®, can be utilized instead for a wide range of petroleum products. One of the high-tech, cutting-edge technologies for energy creation from human waste is the development of microbial fuel cells. Developed by Dr. Bruce Logan of Penn State’s engineering department, the system has been suggested as a method to take waste treatment plants off the grid. The fuel cell, still being refined to produce an acceptable energy output, uses wastewater to generate hydrogen fuel, and clean water is produced as a by-product. While the technology is just not practical for other fuel-cell applications corresponding to hydrogen-powered cars, it can be utilized anywhere there is a large supply of biological waste.

Many people cringe at the thought of human waste based energy systems, and would rather not think about what happens down the pipeline, but as humanity becomes increasingly demanding of energy we must begin to embrace unconventional methods of producing it. With the increasing success of the projects mentioned exists the possibility of eliminating human waste pollution worldwide. Someday our sewage may be known as “brown gold”, and might be more valuable than even crude oil.

Unveiling Secrets Of Crude Oil Through Refining

Crude Oil is combination of millions of different hydrocarbons all mixed together. This mixture of hydrocarbons cannot be of much use to us, thus we need to separate same sort of hydrocarbons from this mixture with the intention to get something which is more useful. The form of separation can be done through a process called ‘refining’.

An oil refinery is the place where the ‘refining’ process is undertaken in a controlled environment. A novel characteristic of similar hydrocarbons is that they have a similar boiling point. This basic information helps us to segregate this mixture and get different products out of it. An oil refinery typically would have a distillation column through which crude is heated and different chains are pulled out as they turn in vapours at different boiling points. Each of those chains represents a unique product with different set of properties.

To know the hidden diversity of crude we could be required to debate it further in little more detail. Following are the different products together with their usages, which could possibly be separated by the technique of oil refining:

  1. Petroleum Gas – This Gas is used mainly for heating, cooking and manufacturing plastics. This Gas is further liquefied to make LPG which today is primary source of energy to fuel millions of kitchens worldwide.
  2. Naphtha – This is an intermediate chemical which is further used to make a number of useful products.
  3. Gasoline – Available in liquid for this is a motor fuel and used all world wide to run motor vehicles.
  4. Kerosene – This again is a form of fuel used primary to run jet engines and tractors. This is also referred to as poor man’s fuel and used for cooking in lots of developing countries.
  5. Diesel – Diesel is used to run motor vehicles fitted with a diesel engine and in addition used to generate heating.
  6. Lubricating oils – Lubrication is required to save lots of part of various machines from wear and tear. Using lubricating oil prolongs the life of machine parts and allows them to function smoothly.
  7. Fuel Oil – This particular kind of oil is used as an industrial fuel to make other products.
  8. Residuals- There are various solid residuals or by products that are left as a result of refining crude. These residuals further have may be used in various applications and industries. Some examples of these residuals are; waxes, coke, asphalt, tar etc.

So after having gone through the above you would have got a good idea of what all is hidden inside crude and the way refining process helps us to unveil these hidden secrets. Author Box oiltrades has 1 articles online

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The Three Phases Of Water Pipeline Construction

The preparation phase of pipeline construction is focused on the event of design plans developed by design engineers. To be able to develop blueprints, engineers need to acquire detailed dataabout the worksite.

That is accomplished by working with subsurface utility engineering (SUE) businesses that survey the property using high-tech equipment. SUE methods are equipped for creating 3D images that identify objects buried underground, akin to water pipeline or utility systems.

Subsurface utility engineering methods are very beneficial to everyone connected to the project. Having the capability to identify the placement of previously installed pipeline let contractors perform their job more safely and efficiently, in addition to lower project costs.

Before SUE technologies were developed, pipeline contractor companies had minimal resources to find out what was hiding underground. It wasn’t uncommon for laborers to accidentally burst pipes or slice utility lines while excavating the terrain or digging trenches. This frequently led to workplace incidents that led to worker injuries or sometimes even fatalities.

Any time pre-existing pipes were discovered during the excavation process, construction workers needed to cease work in order that civil engineers could either redesign or relocate pipelines. This induced long delays and caused an increase in project costs.

Thankfully, SUE technology eradicated the majority or risk factors connected to pipeline construction. Today, construction sites are significantly safer and project delays have been reduced, saving project owners a substantial amount of money.

Wet utility pipeline construction is crucial for delivering natural resources to people, along with getting rid of storm water runoff and waste water. Pipeline systems provide human beings with basic necessities and play a crucial role in public safety.

A variety of factors have to be taken into account during the pre-construction preparing phase. One of the more essential is determining which type of pipes is required to effectively carry water while reducing impact to the environment.

Each of the factors related to the project undergo extensive assessment during the design phase. Engineers evaluate facts gathered from SUE to determine water flow rates and suitable pipe sizes. Blueprints are delivered to city planners and project owners for approval. Plans pertaining to city projects must adjust to government rules, including the Environmental Protection Agency.

After design plans are submitted, project owners attain bids from pipeline contractors. The corporate selected to finish the project must provide the final Contractor with proof of insurance, permits, and easement rights prior to construction.

The active construction step is a 3-part process. The initial step revolves around clearing the worksite of debris and grading the land. Trucks transport pipes and construction supplies so workers can begin the trenching process.

Pipe sections are placed alongside trenches and welded together. Contractors use a special epoxy coating that is placed on welded joints to eliminate weak spots that could leak. The pipeline is then lowered into trenches and finishing touches are applied.

After pipeline is put into place it endures a series of tests to make sure the pipes don’t have any leaks and that structural integrity has not been affected.

Numerous inspections are performed throughout the active construction phase. Inspectors evaluate contractorslicenses, work permits, and insurance policies and make certain employees are properly trained in construction safety policies. Inspectors also examine pipes and components to assure that construction materials, pipeline composition, and structural integrity abide by local, state, and federal regulations.

The post-construction phase revolves around restoring the terrain by backfilling trenches, landscaping the terrain, and removing waste materials. Additional inspections are carried out to make certain pipes are working at greatest capacity and to validate structural integrity.

Pipeline projects are classified as either wet or dry utility. Dry utility contractors perform work related to pipelines that carry non-gaseous materials or safeguard utility systems from natural elements.

Wet utility contractors conduct work on pipes that convey liquid materials akin to storm water, domestic water, sewer waste, and petroleum-based products.

It is recommended to work with skilled wet utility construction contractors which are competent in the kind of labor involved. Find contractors which have an superior construction safety record and are in good standing with the EPA.

Find out more in regards to the important role of wet utility pipeline construction on the Kana Pipeline website. Since 1984, Kana has delivered pipeline services to southern California. We are experienced in storm drain systems, fireline, and water and sewer pipelines. Learn more about our company at

Millbury House, Leveled By Fire, Was No Stranger To Town Officials

MILLBURY – For greater than a decade, frustrated neighbors have been asking the town to force the owners of 158 Wheelock Ave. to wash up the property.

Now the house has been reduced to a pile of rubble, after a raging fire ripped through the structure just before midnight Tuesday.

The blaze consumed the house and charred a second house nearby. Two other houses suffered heat damage, leaving the siding looking as though it was dripping off the walls. Fire Chief Richard Hamilton was treated for heat exhaustion and dehydration, and was recovering at home Wednesday morning. There were no other injuries.

The call for the fire came in at 11:50 p.m., and a dispatcher described the house to those responding as “boarded up” as they raced to the scene. They arrived to seek out the house engulfed in flames and replied to the dispatcher that they felt they were about to lose a second house to the blaze.

Neighbors could hear explosions, and the dispatcher radioed that she was being told the house had “blown up.”

Stephen Herriage was among those that ran toward the fire, only to be turned back by the intense heat.

“It was so hot,” Mr. Herriage said in an interview Wednesday morning. “You couldn’t get near it … but when the ladder truck got here, that’s when they really were able to get loads of water on it.”

The fire came as no surprise to Debbie Gemme, whose family lives nearby.

“When i drove by here yesterday I used to be thinking, ‘This house really is a hearth hazard,’ ” she said. “If you drove by you might just see the addition they’d built was full of stuff … I used to be surprised that folks could even live on this house.”

Cars, mowers, a hot tub and an assortment of what some simply called “junk” have accumulated and the yard had become an eyesore.

A stack of files, 4 inches thick, details the struggle the town has had with homeowner Dawn Haigis. One of many earliest interactions is from 2006, when Ms. Haigis failed to meet a deadline to complete a cleanup at the property. More recently, the Fire Department paid a visit and issued a ticket after outside burning was reported by a neighbor.

For years the town and Ms. Haigis would wrangle over things including unregistered cars on the property.

“We would write tickets and they would get the cars registered,” Town Manager David J. Marciello said. The same was true of building projects, which can be started without permits and when the town learned of the work, permits were sought, essentially buying more time, during which most of the work remained undone, he said.

Mr. Marciello has made a push for the cleanup of ill-kept properties in town, encouraging voters to adopt a state law, Chapter 40U, which would allow the town to request a court-appointed receiver who would assume responsibility for repairing and cleaning up properties which are in serious violation of health, building, sanitation and fire codes and produce other problems. The fire, he said, is an example of why the law is needed.

Still, the process can take years, as evidenced by what’s happened over a decade with the Wheelock Avenue property, he said.

“We can only use the tools we’ve available,” he said. “And sometimes, it will probably take a long time.”

In 2012, notes from a file in Town Hall indicate, officials were proud of a cleanup of external half coil heating reflects kettle the property. In November, a note within the file reads, “More maintenance has been done. Improved. Work in progress.” The subsequent note reads, “Case closed.” But neighbors said the debris continued to pile up.

At one point, officials used in their investigation an aerial photograph showing debris piled around the house and near an in-ground swimming pool – something Ms. Haigis apparently sought a variance for after it was installed. Another document indicates that police were asked to increase patrols in the realm to try to find out who could be dumping petroleum products right into a nearby storm drain. A trail of the oily substance seemed to come back from 158 Wheelock Ave. and the document notes that auto repairs were being done at the house.

One of the last interactions with Ms. Haigis before the fire was a letter she sent to the Board of Health and the building inspector detailing a punch list of items she planned to have completed by the top of June.

“1. Clean out material not needed. 2. Evaluate the house for deterioration. 3. Repair house trim/softets (sic). 4. Installing installation (sic). 5. Prepare house for vinyl siding,” she wrote. However the projects had not been completed and she had been warned that the town planned to turn the matter over to the state attorney general this week, Mr. Marciello said.

On Wednesday, after the fire, the house lot was surrounded by temporary fencing and covered with plastic draping. The men doing the work taped themselves into plastic suits. Mr. Marciello said precautions were taken because the house was built during a time when asbestos might have been used.

Through the fire, crews were hampered by wind and the intensity of the blaze. Propane tanks “off-gassing” nearby fed the fire, and Deputy Fire Chief David Rudge said multiple propane tanks along the side of the house exploded.

What Does Drooling Mean In A Toddler?

Drooling is the unintentional escape of saliva or other substances from the mouth. Drooling is usually a messy business for folks with numerous laundry on the horizon. Your child drooled as a baby and continues as a toddler, past the point at which you though he would stop. Although typically, toddler drooling is normal, watch your kid’s behavior to find out in case you have cause for concern.

Babies often drool profusely during periods of teething in response to the irritation of their gums, based on dentist Robin Onikul of children’s Mercy Hospital. Most parents should not concerned with this phenomenon and accept it as a fact of life. Your toddler might be drooling for the same reason. The 2-year molars are the last baby teeth to erupt on the back of your child’s mouth. Two-year molars generally begin to are available in between your toddler’s second and third birthdays. Drooling that has not stopped by age 3 must be checked out by a doctor.

Drooling occurs when you do not swallow your saliva. The swallowing mechanism, or ability to swallow well and infrequently, may be underdeveloped in your toddler. Depending on your child’s age, the power to swallow could also be on a standard development path, or he is likely to be delayed attributable to premature birth. If your child is drooling after the age of 3 and also shows signs of delays in language or gross motor skills, speak to your doctor about testing for neurological damage or delays, suggests speech-language pathologist Rose Godfrey. In rare cases, your child’s impaired nervous system may interfere with muscle control in the mouth and face, which may result in excessive drooling.

Drooling in a toddler that’s occasional may mean that she is sick. Illnesses equivalent to tonsillitis, strep throat or mononucleosis are painful and should cause your child to drool simply because her throat hurts when she swallows. Abscesses in the mouth or throat and fevers may also result in drooling in some children. Take your toddler to the pediatrician for an examination if she suddenly begins to drool and shows other signs of not feeling well.

Solutions for drooling that does not indicate illness or disability are mainly geared toward managing the condition. Keep your toddler dry with bibs and changes of clothing. Limit face washing to avoid irritating the facial skin, and treat chapping or a rash with a thin coating of petroleum jelly in your kid’s chin. Encourage your child to learn to swallow by offering small amounts of water frequently throughout the day. As he learns to swallow more effectively, the drooling will recede.

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Synthetic Oil Vs. Regular Oil

Shearing machine

Conventional lubrication oil which is also referred to as mineral oil, is a product of the strategy of fractional distillation, which is used to interrupt down petroleum into various products. In case of conventional oil, the molecular structuring is rather uneven and yet possess a top quality of high lubrication. The advantage of conventional motor oil is that it’s cheaper than synthetic oil and is out there almost universally.

Five Amazing Reasons why Bamboo Is A Greener Fabric Than Conventional Cotton

Yes, believe it or not, those tough bamboo stocks (that are literally a type of grass) may be processed into beautiful, soft, eco-friendly bamboo sheets for your organic sleep system. You’d never know you were sleeping in a sea of bamboo grass once they’re finished with it. And bamboo may be an incredibly sustainable choice for green consumers searching for another to conventional cotton. But why is bamboo so great for the environment compared to cotton?

gas storage tank

Once you find out just how eco-friendly bamboo sheets really are, there will probably be no going back. Following are five amazing reasons why bamboo is a greener fabric than conventional cotton

Chemical-free: Bamboo stands grow quickly and easily, with virtually no human interference. Meaning they do not require synthetic fertilizers or pesticides with the intention to thrive. With fewer petroleum-based products consumed and less pollution of waterways and soil, bamboo is way less toxic than conventional cotton.

Water conserving: Bamboo can grow without artificial irrigation, unlike cotton which is one of the crucial water-hungry crops on the planet. This helps to protect groundwater and other water systems in the local people. As water is predicted to become the subsequent oil a resource over which many wars will likely be fought it’s important to decide on products made without the usage of excess water.

Rapidly renewable: Bamboo grass is in a class of plants which can be considered rapidly renewable. Meaning they grow incredibly fast (some species grow up to 30 inches in a single day!) and reach maturity in a brief time period (especially when compared to trees). Once they’re harvested, new bamboo shoots from the roots which are left behind. In the end, more fiber can be harvested from a single patch of bamboo in less time than other fibers. That helps to guard wild spaces from clear-cutting, which is very important for biodiversity and climate change.

Soil enriching: Bamboo plants can actually enrich the soil during which they are grown (if they are grown organically), which helps to enhance the local environment.

Soil anchoring: Additionally, since bamboo grass grows with a fancy network of roots, it may anchor soil in place to prevent soil erosion and topsoil loss. This is good for local communities and helps to project local aquatic systems from excessive run-off.

Vegan: Unlike soft fabrics like cashmere and silk, bamboo could be cultivated without the use of other creatures, making it more humane.

Definitely consider bamboo sheets when you’re next looking for brand spanking new organic bedding. You won’t be disappointed.

Fashion & Earth provides organic clothes, bamboo sheets and more at affordable prices. With their hassle free return policy and, popular Rewards Program you really don’t have anything to lose! Experience the feeling of wearing (and sleeping) organic bedding and clothing.

Country Profile: Petroleum-product Subsidies In India

Bending machineIn 2009, 32% of India’s primary commercial energy consumption was derived from petroleum (BP, 2010) and almost 79% of the domestic crude oil demand was met from imports (TERI, 2010). According to current estimates, this percentage will increase to 91% by 2030/31 (TERI, 2009).
Until the late 1990s, the country’s fuel prices were controlled by the government through a policy called the Administered Pricing Mechanism (APM). Despite dismantling the APM, and ambitions to entirely liberalize prices between 1997 and 2002, subsidies on four sensitive products were never given up for long Motor Spirit (MS), High Speed Diesel (HSD), domestic liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) sold to households, referred to in India as ‘domestic LPG and Superior Kerosene Oil (SKO) targeted to the poor through the country’s public distribution system (PDS), commonly referred to as ‘PDS kerosene Subsidies to those products were particularly costly within the period after 2004, when rising international crude oil prices led the government to introduce a price-band mechanism and thereafter ad-hoc pricing mechanisms.

Various expert groups and government-appointed committees have, now and again, suggested that the costs of these products be decontrolled. The federal government, however, has only ever partially implemented the recommendations of those expert groups and was never able to completely decontrol the ultimate retail prices of these products. The newest in this series of efforts took place in June 2010, following the recommendations of an expert group headed by Dr. Kirit S. Parikh (GoI, 2010), when the federal government decided to decontrol the worth of petroleum products and as a first step deregulated the price of petrol. An in-principle decision was also taken to liberalize diesel prices at some unspecified future date.

Further action, however, has not yet taken place, with the government continuing to manage the worth of diesel, domestic LPG and PDS kerosene, and seeming to waver on its commitment regarding petrol. In the previous few months, at the same time as international crude prices rose by more than 12% between January and March 2011, it was only on 15th May that the prices of petrol were raised by INR 5 (US$ 0.1) per litre thereby taking the prices of petrol to INR 63.37 (US$ 1.4) per litre in Delhi (prices vary across states, mostly due to differential tax structures).

Current pricing and subsidy regime
The Indian government controls prices by requiring downsteam companies, commonly referred to as Oil Marketing Companies (OMCs), to sell petroleum products at below-market prices. This, in fact, leads to ‘under-recoverieswhich the Rangarajan Committee (GoI, 2006) defines as “the difference between the associated fee price and the realized price Here market prices refer to import trade parity prices that reflect the prices that can be incurred if the refined products were being imported rather than being refined and marketed domestically.
These financial losses are paid for in three main ways:

– First, the government has a scheme of providing budgetary subsidies on the sales of domestic LPG and PDS kerosene, equal in 2009-2010 to INR 22.58 (US$ 0.50) per cylinder of LPG and INR 0.82 (US$ 0.02) per litre of kerosene. In addition to this, a sum of INR 220 million (US$ 5 million) was also provided to lower the price of freighting these products to remote areas under the Freight Subsidy (For Far Flung Areas) Scheme introduced in 2002. The overall budgetary subsidies in 2009-10 were INR 27,920 million (US$ 624 million).
– Second, until 2008-09, the federal government also provided off-budget assistance in the form of special bonds called ‘oil bondsthat were issued to OMCs. These were issued in tranches over the course of a financial year and accounted as income within the OMCsprofit and loss statements. Interest rates were set anywhere between 6% and 9% and the bonds were given a period of maturity of up to 20 years. Since only their interest payments are accounted for as spending in the budget, oil bonds do not have any significant fiscal impacts at the point of issue. However, once the bonds are due, the repayment costs should be met from budgetary allocations. Within the last two years, the federal government has not issued any oil bonds, with the finance minister having declared in his 2010-11 budget speech that no further oil bonds will be issued and that any subsidies allocated to the sector will from now on be explicitly met from budgetary allocations.
– Third, the government has forced some proportion of the losses to be absorbed by the oil industry. For instance, the recent budgetary allocations for LPG and kerosene have been too low to cover the difference between the actual and realized price, such that in 2009-10 marketing companies needed to bear under-recovery costs of INR 14.85 (US$ 0.33) per litre of kerosene and INR 178.13 (US$ 4.00) per cylinder of domestic LPG. One variant on this selection has been to direct upstream oil companies to sell their crude to OMCs at discounted rates, thus sharing the burden more widely across the industry. In 2008-09 and 2009-10, upstream companies contributed a total of INR 320 billion (US$ 7.2 billion) and INR 144.3 billion (US$ 3.2 billion), respectively, as assistance to the OMCs. The sharing of the under-recoveries between oil bonds and industry actors is as shown within the figure below.

Sharing of under-recoveries by oil companies

Source: GoI, 2010. Note that ‘crore the unit of measurement on the y-axis, is equal to 10,000,000.

Over time, the share of costs met by budgetary subsidies has declined, whereas the difference between the actual price and the realized price of subsidized products has increased. In response to recent estimates by the Petroleum Planning and Analysis Cell (PPAC), a government appointed agency accountable for collecting information related to oil companies, firms are currently incurring a daily under-recovery of INR 4.45 billion (US$ 0.1 billion) on the sale of subsidized diesel, kerosene and LPG (PPAC, 2011).
It ought to be noted that the federal government controls the costs of only the National Oil Marketing Companies and therefore the subsidies are also allocated to only these companies. Although private companies are free to charge import-parity based prices, in reality they struggle to compete against the sales of subsidized fuel. There’s currently only very limited participation from these private companies in marketing oil products.

Impact of subsidies
The two major impacts of the subsidies are on consumers and the fiscal situation of oil companies and the Indian government.
At the level of consumers, subsidies can result in quite a few perverse outcomes. Kerosene, for instance, is usually used for lighting in rural households, despite being an inefficient fuel for lighting. In case of automotive fuels, the pricing regime leads to wasteful consumption of fuel indeed, the country’s shift away from public transport towards privately owned transport is essentially leading to an excessive and inefficient usage of fuel.
There are also questions of access for marginalized areas of society. A significant share of the subsidized kerosene actually gets diverted to the black market and is used to adulterate diesel (NCAER, 2005). And despite recent efforts to convert rural households to LPG-use, adoption of LPG remains limited. According the 64th Round of the National Sample Survey, only 9% of the rural households used LPG for cooking (NSSO, 2007), suggesting that many households are unable to avail themselves to the supposed welfare gains of cheap fuel.

At the financial level, oil marketing companies have in the past few years suffered from a liquidity crunch because oil bonds are long term in nature and don’t provide adequate cover when it comes to short-term working capital requirements. Although the OMCs have occasionally sold parts of these bonds in the secondary market, the low interest rates and the truth that these have not been given a Statutory Liquidity Ratio (SLR) status allowing banks to count them as part of their mandatory liquid reserves reduces their marketability (IEA, 2010), such that companies have often sold them at discounted rates. This means that in times of high oil prices, oil companies have tended to experience a decline in profits, a rise in interest payments and a rise in their debt-to-equity ratios. These changes were particularly apparent in the period from 2006-07 to 2008-09, as illustrated in the table below.

Financial performance of the oil marketing companies

Source: Compiled from the financial statements of the respective oil companies,
IOCL: Indian oil Corporation limited;
BPCL: Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited;
and HPCL: Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Limited.
The Debt/Equity Ratio has been calculated through the use of the formula: (Total Borrowings/Net Worth). where Net Worth is the sum of the Share Capital and Reserves and Surplus of the company.

The impact of oil subsidies is not limited to the downstream companies alone. Since upstream companies also share the burden of petroleum product subsidies, they have fewer funds available for investment in their core activities. The imposition of subsidies has also had an adverse impact on the level of competition in the sector because it has resulted in very limited private participation in the national market.
Finally, the subsidy regime also has an impact on government finances, because in the long-run the oil bonds must be repaid. Even within the short-run, as the federal government has decided to stop issuing oil bonds, it is probably going that the burden of any future fuel subsidies would put significant pressure on India’s budgetary finances.

Possible interventions

As the aim of the subsidies is to enhance the welfare of marginalized sections of society, essentially the most direct intervention could be to raised target the subsidy to achieve this population. One proposal in this respect has been to link subsidy provision to India’s Unique Identification (UID) scheme, allowing subsidies to be individually targeted to unique identity numbers for each individual within the country. In accordance with an interview in May with Planning Commission member Saumitra Chaudhuri, such reforms to food, fertiliser and fuel subsidies shall be outlined within the approach paper to India’s 12th Five Year Plan (20127), though it remains to be seen how effective the measure might be within the times to come back.
More strategic possiblities include reducing the need for fossil-fuel consumption. In the short term, this might take the form of safer and more reliable types of public transport. Within the long-term, research and development of different fuels and renewable sources of energy will help wean away the economy from excessive dependence on petroleum.

Anmol Soni is a Research Associate on the Energy and Resources Institute, TERI, New Delhi, India. She works on areas related to petroleum and natural gas in India.
This text draws on the larger work currently being conducted on subsidies on petroleum products by the Centre for Research on Energy Security, TERI.

BP. (2010). BP Statistical Review of World Energy. British Petroleum. Available at:…/bp…/statistical…review…/2010…/statistical_review_of_world_energy_full_report_2010.pdf
GoI. (2010). Report of the Expert Group on a Viable and Sustainable System of Pricing of Petroleum Products. New Delhi: Government of India.
GoI. (2006). Report of the Committee on Pricing and Taxation of Petroleum Products. New Delhi: Government of India.
IEA. (2010). India’s Downstream Petroleum Sector: Refined product pricing and refinery investment. Paris: International Energy Agency.
NCAER. (2005). Comprehensive Study to evaluate the Demand and Requirement of SKO. New Delhi: National Council for Applied Economic Research.
NSSO. (2007). Household Consumer Expenditure in India, 2007-08 (NSS 64th Round). National Sample Survey Organisation, Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of India.
PPAC. (2011). Information on Petroleum Prices and Under-Recoveries. Petroleum Planning and Analysis Cell, Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas, Government of India. Available at:
TERI. (2010). TERI Energy Data Directory and Yearbook, 2010. New Delhi: The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI).
TERI. (2009). India’s Energy Security: New opportunities for a sustainable future, Paper submitted to Hon’ble Prime Minister of India. New Delhi: The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI).

The Self Bunded Container Wraptank Shipping Container Design!

The nature the character of your online business requires fuel and other liquids to be stored and available on site, then think about using a self bunded tank. A self bunded tank is built with double steel walls that prevent spillage and contamination of the liquid it contains, making it an effective storage device.

There may be a wide range of self bunded tanks available in the market today starting from the standard to the more innovatively designed, with each type designed to handle specific application requirements. One of the more modern types of self bunded tanks is the self bunded container wraptank.

The container wraptank is an innovatively designed round-shaped tank supported and contained in a rectangular frame. It has the strength and durability of the normal round-shaped self bunded tank and the versatility of shipping container logistics. In this article, we discuss in detail the innovative features of the self bunded container wraptank.

1. It features an extended dip point complete with calibrated anodized dipstick and lockable cap.

2. The container wraptank provides rated over fill protection unit supplied with mechanical shut off supplied with an audible alarm.

3. Lockable roller doors or security gates can be found for the front of the cowling.

4. The container wraptank has 50nb and 80nb fill lines complete with fire rated isolation valve, non-return valve, camlock adaptor and lockable dust cap.

5. It features a 50nb suction line complete with anti siphon line.

6. Full range of pumping, dispensing and fuel management systems is obtainable.

7. Its ladder to access the top of the tank is designed and manufactured to AS 1657 and incorporating sliding mechanism in order that the ladder is contained within the container foot print and access to the highest of the tank is offered for ease of inspection and maintenance.

8. The container wraptank is self supporting with no requirement for internal baffles making it completely safe if any internal access is required.

9. There is no need to lift the tank for periodic inspection because the underside of the tank is totally visible.

10. Surface of the tanks is painted class 2 and a half blast clean followed by 2 pack epoxy top coat.

11. 600mm access manhole is available on top of the tank.

12. The container wraptank features an interstial space vented and monitored by dipstick.

The self bunded container wraptank can store liquids from 10,000 litres to 70,000 litres, making it ideal for businesses that require large amounts of fuel or other liquids to be available onsite. It also comes with a bottom lift for personnel to avoid working at heights during loading and off loading. The container wraptank can be suitable for a variety of petroleum, petrochemical and chemical applications and is manufactured to exceed industry and statutory requirements.

This article was written by Tom Jerrat for DTE Group. DTE Group is the leading provider of self bunded tanks, double wall tanks, fuel tanks, vertical tanks, container tanks and storage tanks in Perth, Australia. DTE Group products are suitable for applications within the petroleum, chemical, industrial, power, process and mining industries. Visit for more details and product information

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Using Water To Power Your Car

Nowadays, with the raises within the petroleum prices it seems almost impossible to make all those trips you always wanted to make and never make your pocket suffer.

Unfortunately, things do not seem to be getting any brighter and most probably in the near future prices will continue to go up. With this kind of stories, almost anybody is trying to search for a serious alternative to petroleum products, some people check out those electric cars (hybrid cars usually, which are great should you drive mostly within your city) and a few people thought of water fuel rather than using any gas in any respect.

In order to keep petroleum prices from going up and everybody still having their precious cars it is essential that once a way of beating the system (meaning, once you found a option to go around the gas situation) it needs to be marketed and used as much because it can be used. Another unfortunate part is that petroleum reserves are beginning to be at low levels, and in just some years, we can be facing a real crisis, and that isn’t good.

That is another reason for which water powered cars (for example) will be an actual solution to those problems. Yet, as impressive as it could sound, using water to power your car shouldn’t be even by far a completely new idea.

Actually, water energy has been used for the past 100 years with no problems at all, and that i mean in the automotive sector. The device works rather easy in theory. You see, due to your car’s electricity you may take a small amount of water (H2O) and transform it right into a thing called Brown Gas, or HHO.

This conversion it is known to be a very efficient one because it provides quite a lot of energy and it is environment healthy because the result’s nothing else but water, rather than the old-fashion petroleum result that releases a really unpleasant smoke that pollutes the whole atmosphere each and each day.

Alternative energy has been an issue on everybody’s mind ever since petroleum products have gotten more and costlier.

Actually, increasingly people wondered if there’s any way through which they’ll build another combustion system, and the reply is yes, but with a lot of time, research, and never to mention useless expenses that you simply will not be willing to pay.

Yet, the solution with this Brown Gas (HHO) is that it’s going to provide the hydrogen’s atomic power but in the identical time helps maintain the chemical stability of the water component.

The nice part here is that, in a really amazing way a pound of brown gas is 2.7 times more powerful than one pound of gasoline. With converted vehicles HHO is a great solution for those excited about boosting their performance and in addition their MPG ratings.

Losing Fat And Inches With All Natural Body Wraps

You may have seen advertisements for a extremely popular brand of body wrap that you can perform at home that claims to flush out toxins and take away unwanted fat and inches using “all naturalingredients. While most of those ingredients ARE natural, there are several that aren’t.

The primary ingredient that should be of concern is BHT. BHT is used as a preservative in these wraps so the ingredients applied to the wrap retain their color. BHT is primarily used to prevent fats in foods from becoming rancid but it’s also used in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, jet fuels, rubber, petroleum products, electrical transformer oil, and embalming fluid. Not exactly something you ought to be absorbing into your body.

The MSDS (Material Safety Data Sheet) for this substance gives warning against the usage of BHT. It states the following:
BHT shouldn’t be allowed to enter the environment
BHT is combustible
Ingestion causes abdominal pain, confusion, dizziness, nausea, vomiting
BHT may have effects on the liver
BHT is harmful to aquatic organisms

Other than all of the reasons above to not use products containing this chemical, research has also shown BHT has been linked to cancer, developmental toxicity, allergies, neurotoxicity, endocrine disruption and biochemical or cellular level changes. How appealing do these body wraps look now?

Another ingredient that concerns me with these wraps is Magnesium Aluminum Silicate. This is a naturally occurring thickener. In keeping with the Cosmetics Database, Magnesium Aluminum Silicate is approved by the CIR Expert Panel, but only in LIMITED concentrations. The CIR’s concern with this particular ingredient comes from the truth that aluminum is a known neurotoxin.

So, now that you realize the truth behind these so called “all naturalbody wraps, you could also be wondering if you possibly can still obtain the identical benefits of a wrap without exposing yourself to potentially dangerous chemicals. You most definitely can by using a proven recipe. This recipe is a house version of the popular all natural wraps performed in elite spas across the globe.

Please visit my website: to view the recipe and complete set of instructions.

The World’s First Clean Oil Sands Project: An Interview With Dr. Gerald Bailey

After decades of exhaustive attempts to overcome the dirty reputation of oil sands, we finally have an environmentally-friendly and low cost method to tap into these vast resources within the state of Utah — good news both for Mother Nature and all oil and gas investors.

MCW Energy Group’s CEO, former Exxon President of the Arabian Gulf region, Dr. R. Gerald Bailey, tells in an exclusive interview that his hunt for an innovative technology that simultaneously makes money and cleans up the environment is over. The race to capitalize on Utah’s vast oil sands resources is on, and only the ‘clean’ — both financially and environmentally — will survive.

Coming hot off of the successful launch of unpolluted oil sands operations in Utah, while other oil sands projects are under fire from protesters, Dr. Bailey discusses:

The difference between Utah and Alberta in terms of oil sands resources.
How new technology can — and is — extracting oil sands without harming the environment.
Why the new technology is as much about remediation as it is about extraction
Tips on how to create new revenue streams and use the resulting clean sand for other purposes.
Why it’s finally possible to earn cash extracting oil from oil sands cleanly — despite the current world’s depressed oil prices.
What Alberta’s tailings ponds look like now, and what may very well be done to scrub them up — eventually.

Interview by James Stafford of

James Stafford: After a few years of oil companies attempting to develop Utah’s vast oil sands deposits without harming the environment, where are we now?

Gerald Bailey: Right now, we’re experiencing an exciting moment in the history of oil sands technology. For the first time, we will finally extract oil from Utah’s oil sands without any environmental damage. And significantly, we will do it at a cost that is sensible, even in this depressed oil price environment. It is taken decades for somebody to give you this technology and really make it commercially viable; and it was these elements that attracted me to MCW Energy. I wanted to get entangled in this project while it was still new and largely off investor radar — now it is poised to explode as a further source for independent American oil production.

James Stafford: So, oil sands don’t necessarily have to be dirty?

Gerald Bailey: No, oil sands in themselves aren’t dirty. It is sort of simply sand that contains oil, just like sand underground in an oilfield contains oil. They’re dark with oil. The word ‘dirty’ has been derived from the actual fact that most current extraction processes use hot water or steam, which ends up in an oily water stream that leaves behind toxic tailings ponds.

James Stafford: How is that this new proprietary extraction technology developed by MCW Energy different? How does it work?

Gerald Bailey: It’s really quite simple. The technology works in the identical way as soap takes grease off plates: The grease adheres to the soap and pulls it away and off the plate. Our technology — which focuses on proprietary solvents — works in the identical way. It adheres to the oil and pulls it away from the sand.

James Stafford: What happens with the sand after this process?

Gerald Bailey: Well, that will depend on what other local market uses there are. Generally speaking, we wash the sand with our solvents and then return it to the earth 99.9 percent clean. You’ll be able to grow plants on it and it is not contaminated with oil.

James Stafford: And are there any other uses for this sand? Is there any kind of a marketplace for this once it’s been cleaned up?

Gerald Bailey: As I discussed, for now the sand is usually returned to the earth — clean and safe. But there are other potential applications that we are exploring. One possibility is to sell the cleaned sand as frack sands, which is a spin-off business that is growing as fracking activities in America increase. Frack sands require certain quantities of silicon and never all sands are equal in this respect. Much of the specified frack sand comes from the Midwest — from Wisconsin and Michigan, as an illustration. For years Utah oil sands containing bitumen/asphalt have been used in Utah, Wyoming and Colorado to build roads and highways.

James Stafford: So the immediate term goal is to deal with ramping up production in Utah and then licensing the technology for global application?

Gerald Bailey: Yes. MCW has achieved commercial viability already through a completely operational oil sands plant in Asphalt Ridge, in the guts of the Utah oil reserves both in sands and in conventional reservoirs, near the town of Vernal. It is termed “America’s first environmentally-friendly oil sands extraction project.” Since the start of this year, now we have been cleaning Utah’s oil sands and selling the oil to the market.

James Stafford: Why Utah?

Gerald Bailey: Asphalt Ridge is one of Utah’s 8 major oil sand deposits. Asphalt Ridge alone is believed to hold some 1 billion barrels of recoverable oil. Utah has some 55 percent (Department of Energy Estimate: 32 billion barrels) of the United States oil sands deposits.

James Stafford: How much is the project producing now and what are the forecasts?

Gerald Bailey: The project is producing 250 barrels a day right now at a very reasonable production cost of $30 per barrel, with plans to construct a 5,000/bpd plant, which could bring costs all the way down to $20 per barrel. Even in this current world market, those numbers mean profit. While Alberta’s oil sands are expensive to provide oil using their existing technologies, and are very troubled right now, MCW could make a profit on Utah’s oil sands even with oil at $40 per barrel. And that is what today’s market is all about — innovations that spell profit even in times of crisis. Finding a company that has no debt — corresponding to MCW — in this atmosphere was a huge selling point for me.

James Stafford: How do you convince the general public of the prospects of clean oil sands for Utah given the international outcry about Canada’s dirty oil sands?

Gerald Bailey: That’s the challenge. Certainly, Canada has given oil sands a nasty name and that is unfortunate, but the process and situation in Utah is entirely different and the 2 can’t be compared.

Utah oil sands are present in a unique position — much of Utah’s oil sands deposits lie from surface to just 400 feet. You’ll be able to just scoop up the oil sands with a front loader and then process it with MCW’s proprietary solvents. The oil comes out and also you sell the oil and put the sand back within the environment.

In comparison, Canada’s oil sands have to be mined because they are several hundred feet deep and the oil needs to be extracted with steam. The resultant polluted water returns to surface with residual oil that cannot be separated. This dirty water and sludge is stored in huge tailings ponds, so large I understand they are often seen from space. Utah’s sands are oil wet, rather than water wet, eliminating the necessity for tailings ponds.

James Stafford: What does this really mean for the environment?

Gerald Bailey: We’re here to wash up the oil sands business — for now, starting in Utah. And any savvy investor knows that technology that’s environmentally-friendly and commercially viable rules the day. That is already a proven, cost-effective technology. Our main technology process advantage is that we require no water to extract hydrocarbons from the oil sands. Almost all other technologies require up to three barrels of water for each barrel of oil produced.

Utah being largely a desert state, usage of water for resource development is a particularly touchy issue. Our system features a closed-loop technology….nothing leaves the system except the cleaned sands and oil. And after tweaking our process, we have managed to dramatically reduce our labor costs, decrease the costs of the petroleum products we use in extraction and, increase our process efficiencies — all which lead to the lowest production costs within the industry. Our next step is to share this technology with the remainder of the world. For now, meaning anywhere that has oil sands deposits similar to Utah’s.

James Stafford: Are you talking a couple of technology that extracts oil sands in an environmentally-friendly manner, or does it have broader environmental applications?

Gerald Bailey: Oh, the environmental applications are much broader. Our process may also be viewed as a remediation technology. This is not just an opportunity to get in on another source for oil, but additionally an opportunity to wash up the land after disasters or the resulting polluted tailings ponds resulting from other less efficient extraction processes

James Stafford: Are you suggesting such a technology could have played a task in cleaning up the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, for instance?

Gerald Bailey: I am. We could have applied our technology there and cleaned up significant areas of the contaminated beach. In case you go there right now, you can still find lots of polluted sand behind the beach dunes and within the adjoining swamps. This technology will definitely add value for its wider remediation applications.

James Stafford: For now, though, MCW’s technology seems to be flying under the radar — where many won’t have heard of it.

Gerald Bailey: You realize, I recognized this after i joined the company that MCW had a technology that nobody else had. I also recognized that it could make an enormous splash on the world oil scene. Now it’s ready to achieve out to the public. This comes at a time when oil sands extraction is a tense issue in Utah, with protesters attempting to dam an oil sands project owned by another company, which is using a water-based technology. Educating the general public on the different processes of extracting oil sands might be key to pushing an environmentally-friendly agenda forward.

There was no protest to our Asphalt Ridge project in Utah to this point because we emit nothing to the air or soil and there isn’t a water to discard. MCW has worked very closely with the Energy Development Department in Utah, meeting or exceeding all environmental requirements. We’re working under the rules of their Responsible Resource Development Program, which is proof that resources could also be safely developed with placing the environment at risk. Nonetheless, most of the people still must be made aware of both the environmental and economic possibilities here for the long run.

James Stafford: What is the long-term goal here? Building plants around the world, or licensing the technology?

Gerald Bailey: MCW is prepared to go several routes. We are able to build a plant for others, or we are able to build and operate these extraction plants as a joint venture. However, licensing is definitely a superb solution to deploy our technology worldwide. This unique MCW technology has major global applications. You can create a horny revenue stream for everybody who implements it. Russia, China, Afghanistan, Dominican Republic, Namibia, Jordan and Trinidad — these are all great potential license purchasers with considerable oils sands deposits.

Eventually, we could even potentially clean up Alberta’s tailings ponds by de-watering the abandoned sludge and applying our new solvents to squeeze the remainder of the oil out.

It is actually surprising that nobody discovered this before… it’s just like the Wright Brothers, they found a way they usually proved the method. Someone always comes along to resolve the problem. MCW has accomplished this…Our technology works; there is no pollution; nothing toxic goes back into the bottom or into the air. We will be driving lots of cars on the refined gasoline that comes from these huge reserves. This is a national and historical first — one I’m willing to bet my 50-year reputation on.

The Intention Of Acquiring Yammer Has Been Criticized

Recently, the news of Microsoft’s acquisition of social network Yammer has aroused intense discussion of the technology sector.

In essence, enterprise social network is the next-generation enterprise intranet. Different from the traditional enterprise intranet, enterprise social network combines the advantages of Twitter and Facebook. While the former is just a group of a series of its own web page or closed directory, and is proscribed to the internal transmission of information or the distribution memorandum.

Under the promotion of Yammer, Jive Software Inc. (JIVE), Spigot and other players, the enterprise intranet is gradually socializing. These players have a strong technology and tools to allow more feature-rich intranet. Some intranets even have broken the limitations of the enterprise, attracting customers to come. In this way, customers have a really real experience of the enterprise, which makes them feel comfortable.

Simply put, the final word goal of designing these systems is to encourage people to speak and exchange more at home, thereby improving overall efficiency.

But from another perspective, if an enterprise can arrange an enterprise social network by itself, then they certainly wouldn’t spend $ 1 billion for the acquisition, and Microsoft seems to have had this ability.

After all, if this really shows that the software giant of Microsoft cannot establish an enterprise social network within the company, together with all of the features, then this is clearly an important warning.

Microsoft had invested some huge cash for acquisitions, nevertheless it didn’t retain the key personnel who really fully understand the products. Many individuals cannot stand the solution to work with no freedom in Redmond headquarters and chose to quit as soon as possible. Therefore, some industry insiders identified that Microsoft’s transaction of acquiring the Yammer is prone to result in failure.

Once Microsoft is beginning to think it has a better understanding of the principle of acquired products, or to think if products should be improved, such a thing will continue to recur. And in lots of cases, Microsoft’s judgment is always biased.

To acquire Yammer, along with receiving the company’s patented technology, Microsoft will also receive Yammer’s client resources, including Royal Dutch Petroleum and DHL. The truth is, Yammer had said that the corporate had business with nearly 200 thousand enterprises. If we calculate in accordance with Microsoft’s payment of $ 1 billion, each customer’s value is about $ 5,000.

Every time when Tory is surfing online, he often thinks of playing online games to make teams with friends. He could make many D3 PowerLeveling to exchange real money.

The Risks Of Phenolic Foam Insulation

Phenolic foam insulation was once available in board form, but today is simply sold as a type of foamed-in-place insulation. It offers many advantages, including excellent density and an R-value of 4.8 per inch of thickness, which forms an effective barrier against heat transfer and thus helps you save energy across the house. However, phenolic foam insulation has some drawbacks of which it is best to bear in mind.


Phenolic foam insulation is known to shrink after curing (placement) in the walls of your house or between floorboards. This shrinkage will be as pronounced as 2 percent, which is sufficient to cause significant air leakage and heat transfer. Thus, you might should reapply the foam insulation to treated areas once the initial material has had an opportunity to set.

Steel Deck Corrosion

You probably have phenolic insulation in your roof, it’s best to remember that it could cause severe corrosion of your roof’s steel deck, which may result in serious structural weaknesses. While production of phenolic roof insulation was discontinued in the United States in 1992, find out whether or not it was used to insulate your roof in case your roof was last worked on previous to that date.

Environmental Hazards

Phenolic foam insulation has a significant environmental impact, exceeding that of other insulation materials. Significant amounts of petroleum and natural gas should be burned during the manufacturing and refining processes, though the insulation industry has ceased to use chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) within the manufacture of foam insulation products.


Phenolic foam insulation will deteriorate if it is exposed to moisture or sunlight for extended periods of time. While it is going to be safe from sunlight exposure inside your walls or between your floorboards, it is important that you control humidity levels in areas of your house which have been treated with phenolic foam insulation or you risk compromising its efficiency.

Steel Deck Corrosion Related to Phenolic Roof Insulation

About Paraffin Oils

methanol canParaffin oils are petroleum products. These oils are utilized in a variety of industries starting from food production to pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and engineering. Liquid paraffin, also called “white paraffin” or “mineral oil” is transparent, odorless, colorless, waterproof and consists of “saturated hydrocarbons obtained from petroleum”, says Dr. Billy Bourke, professor of medicine at University College Dublin. Paraffin oil is also used in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industries.

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Foot Balms And Scrubs-Putting Your Best Foot Forward

Fashion and Beauty»
Women’s Hygiene
Foot Balms and Scrubs-Putting Your Best Foot Forward
Updated on May 5, 2016 awdur moreContact Author It’s hard to believe that Spring is coming to an end, and when the summer months loom ahead, I admittedly look down at the most abused parts of my body and realize they’re in no condition for an unveiling. What makes some of us neglect our feet for such long periods of time, only to be shocked at their condition when it is time to drag out the sandals and flip-flops we all love so much? In my case, it is pure laziness.

Extraction of special distributorMost of us take our feet without any consideration, me included. We do not think about the truth that they carry us around all day long, and we do not consider the beating these very complex structures take each day. The foot is made up of twenty-eight bones that are more-or-less sewn together by the ligaments, muscles and tendons that surround them. They’re often over-used, ill housed in improperly sized shoes, and thoroughly neglected. While you give it some thought, don’t they deserve slightly extra attention?

Simple Pleasures
Caring on your feet at home shouldn’t be only a simple process, but one that’s well definitely worth the time invested. The first step in the process is softening the skin, a brief ten minute immersion in warm water, followed by a fast sea-salt scrub and massage. If you’re really short on time, simply keep a pumice stone handy within the shower stall and give your feet a radical going over before exiting. Afterward, slather your feet with foot balm before putting on a pair of warm, fuzzy socks. That’s it, and should you think about it…… the regular use of a pumice stone is a time saver in itself.

Soaking at Leisure
Although I always seem to be running short of time, nothing beats a long, leisurely soak for achy, tired feet. Unwind and soften calluses by mixing one cup of cider vinegar with a gallon of warm water. When the water begins to cool, rub your feet with sea salt (coarse), rinse, dry and moisturize. If you don’t have any sea salt available, a foot brush will do. As you can see, this small indulgence requires no more effort than opening the door of a cabinet and filling a basin with water.

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Another simple recipe to treat the aches and supply much needed nourishment for dry skin could be attained by adding a couple of drops of wheat-germ oil to water, two to 3 tablespoons should do the trick. Obtained from the kernel or heart of the wheat grain, wheat-germ contains a total of twenty-three different nutrients and can be used both topically and internally. In this case, we’re using it to moisturize and soothe our feet with a myriad of vitamins (A,D,B,E), antioxidants and fatty acids, which will help to heal dry, cracked skin (think winter heels).

Wheat germ oil also makes an incredible moisturizer for the body. Easily absorbed, it can make your skin smooth to the touch without the greasiness that accompanies some oils. Base oils like carrot or jojoba will show you how to to create the perfect blend; essential oils may also be added. Wheat-germ oil can be readily purchased for use at home in eight or sixteen ounce bottles and could be safely stored in the refrigerator for up to one year. People with wheat or gluten allergies should avoid using this product.

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Jojoba oil, as mentioned above is a superb base oil for use in natural beauty products, but it also provides many benefits of its own. Jojoba, an evergreen shrub, produces tiny, pea-like seeds (female plants) which yield a valuable oil used in quite a lot of expensive skin and hair care products. Loaded with unsaturated fats, jojoba oil is a wonderful skin moisturizer, which easily penetrates the skin helping to maintain it smooth and supple. Odorless, jojoba serves as the right oil base in which to blend your favorite scent.

Jojoba oil’s anti-inflammatory and anti-fungal properties also make it an excellent source of relief from skin conditions like eczema or psoriasis and foot conditions reminiscent of athlete’s foot and toe nail fungus. To make a natural foot balm specifically aimed at athlete’s foot, you have to the following; a double boiler, cosmetic jar, four teaspoons each of wheat-germ and jojoba oils, two teaspoons of beeswax, and tea-tree essential oil (25 drops). Upon getting collected all of your ingredients, heat the wheat-germ and jojoba oils with your beeswax within the double boiler until the beeswax is totally melted (your mixture should take on a creamy in texture). After getting the right consistency, remove the mixture from the heat and stir until it’s cool to the touch (literally stir until cool). Lastly, blend your essential oil (tea-tree) into the mixture, pour into a cosmetic jar, and apply as necessary. The combination of beeswax and jojoba oil in the balm will thicken because it cools. This foot balm will stay fresh for approximately one year.

Beeswax, an integral ingredient for achieving a creamy texture in homemade foot balm is a natural product of honey production, which is obtained by melting empty honeycombs. Amazingly, this readily available base ingredient, which has been around for so long as…… well, forever, has suddenly become all the fashion in beauty products from the local drug store to the finest cosmetic counters on the planet. Balms and lotions made with beeswax coat the skin, which prevents dehydration and protects your skin from the weather.

Beeswax supplies the body within the balm. It adds weight, thickness and moisture, but better of all, it can be utilized with any number of other moisturizing ingredients. My favorite foot balm recipe to make at home could be prepared in a double-boiler or saucepan (I find double-boilers eliminate the prospect of scorching) by melting equal parts of beeswax, cocoa butter and almond oil (five ounces each). For aroma, I throw in around ten drops of essential coconut oil, although you’ll be able to add the essential oil of your choice. Balms and lotions made with beeswax coat the skin, preventing dehydration and protecting it from the elements.

In conclusion…..
Creating natural beauty products is fun and challenging, but when you don’t have the time or the desire. there are countless foot products available within the marketplace. I like working with oil bases and creating texture, striving for the creamiest balm possible, after which playing with a variety of essential oils to search out just the proper fragrance. Actually, it is my favorite a part of the method.Within the words of Andrew Weil, “Our feet are out body’s connection to the earth.” Let’s attempt to treat them right……..

The complete Guide to Natural Healing, International Masters Publishers AB

Homemade Facial Skin Care RecipesHomemade Jojoba Anti-Wrinkle Solution Recipe
by Suzanne Ridgeway14

Skin CareJojoba oil – Benefits of jojoba oil on hair and skin
by Silver Q11

Makeup height:75px” class=”thumbphoto”>Alternative height:75px” class=”thumbphoto”>Beauty height:75px” class=”thumbphoto”>Beauty height:75px” class=”thumbphoto”>Beauty display: none;”>sendingAuthorawdur 7 months ago from Chicago

Petroleum jelly is great for softening feet before using a pumice stone, nevertheless it has no moisturizing properties, it simply holds moisture in. To maintain your feet moisturized and healthy, lotions and creams made from natural ingredients are your best bet. Thanks for reading!

Trump’s Carbon-Obsessed Energy Policy And The Planetary Nightmare To come back

Scroll through Donald Trump’s campaign promises or listen to his speeches and you may easily conclude that his energy policy consists of little greater than a wish list drawn up by the major fossil fuel companies: lift environmental restrictions on oil and natural gas extraction, build the Keystone XL and Dakota Access pipelines, open more federal lands to drilling, withdraw from the Paris climate agreement, kill Obama’s Clean Power Plan, revive the coal mining industry, and so on and so forth ad infinitum. The truth is, lots of his proposals have simply been lifted straight from the talking points of top energy industry officials and their lavishly financed allies in Congress.

If, however, you take a better have a look at this morass of pro-carbon proposals, an obvious, if as yet unnoted, contradiction quickly becomes apparent. Were all Trump’s policies to be enacted — and the appointment of the climate-change denier and industry-friendly attorney general of Oklahoma, Scott Pruitt, to head the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) suggests the attempt will be made — not all segments of the energy industry will flourish. Instead, many fossil fuel companies can be annihilated, thanks to the rock-bottom fuel prices produced by a colossal oversupply of oil, coal, and natural gas.

Indeed, stop thinking of Trump’s energy policy as primarily geared toward helping the fossil fuel companies (although some will certainly benefit). Think of it instead as a nostalgic compulsion aimed toward restoring an extended-vanished America during which coal plants, steel mills, and gas-guzzling automobiles were the designated indicators of progress, while concern over pollution — not to mention climate change — was yet to be a problem.

In order for you confirmation that such a devastating version of nostalgia makes up the heart and soul of Trump’s energy agenda, don’t concentrate on his specific proposals or any particular combination of them. Look instead at his choice of ExxonMobil CEO Rex Tillerson as his secretary of state and former Governor Rick Perry from oil-soaked Texas as his secretary of energy, not to mention the carbon-embracing fervor that ran through his campaign statements and positions. Based on his election campaign website, his top priority shall be to “unleash America’s $50 trillion in untapped shale, oil, and natural gas reserves, plus hundreds of years in clean coal reserves.In doing so, it affirmed, Trump would “open onshore and offshore leasing on federal lands, eliminate [the] moratorium on coal leasing, and open shale energy deposits.In the method, any rule or regulation that stands in the way in which of exploiting these reserves will probably be obliterated.

If all of Trump’s proposals are enacted, U.S. greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions will soar, wiping out the declines of recent years and significantly increasing the pace of global warming. On condition that other major GHG emitters, especially India and China, will feel less obliged to abide by their Paris commitments if the U.S. heads down that path, it’s almost certain that atmospheric warming will soar beyond the 2 degree Celsius rise over pre-industrial levels that scientists consider the maximum the planet can absorb without suffering catastrophic repercussions. And if, as promised, Trump also repeals a complete raft of environmental regulations and essentially dismantles the Environmental Protection Agency, much of the progress made over recent years in improving our air and water quality will simply be wiped away, and the skies over our cities and suburbs will once again turn gray with smog and toxic pollutants of all sorts.

Eliminating All Constraints on Carbon Extraction

To completely appreciate the dark, essentially delusional nature of Trump’s energy nostalgia, let’s start by reviewing his proposals. Apart from assorted tweets and one-liners, two speeches before energy groups represent essentially the most elaborate expression of his views: the first was given on May 26th on the Williston Basin Petroleum Conference in Bismarck, North Dakota, to groups largely focused on extracting oil from shale through hydraulic fracturing (“fracking within the Bakken shale oil formation; the second on September 22nd addressed the Marcellus Shale Coalition in Pittsburgh, a group of Pennsylvania gas frackers.

At both events, Trump’s comments were designed to curry favor with this segment of the industry by promising the repeal of any regulations that stood in the way of accelerated drilling. But that was just a start for the then-candidate. He went on to lay out an “America-first energy plandesigned to eliminate virtually every impediment to the exploitation of oil, gas, and coal anywhere in the country or in its surrounding waters, ensuring America’s abiding status as the world’s leading producer of fossil fuels.

Much of this, Trump promised in Bismarck, would be set in motion in the primary 100 days of his presidency. Among other steps, he pledged to:

* Cancel America’s commitment to the Paris Climate Agreement and stop all payments of U.S. tax dollars to U.N. global warming programs

* Lift any existing moratoriums on energy production in federal areas

* Ask TransCanada to renew its permit application to build the Keystone Pipeline

* Revoke policies that impose unwarranted restrictions on new drilling technologies

* Save the coal industry

The specifics of how all this might happen weren’t provided either by the candidate or, later, by his transition team. Nevertheless, the main thrust of his approach couldn’t be clearer: abolish all regulations and presidential directives that stand in the way of unrestrained fossil fuel extraction, including commitments made by President Obama in December 2015 under the Paris Climate Agreement. These would come with, particularly, the EPA’s Clean Power Plan, with its promise to substantially reduce greenhouse gas emissions from coal-fired plants, along with mandated improvements in automotive fuel efficiency standards, requiring major manufacturers to achieve an average of 54.5 miles per gallon in all new cars by 2025. As these constitute the center of America’s “intended nationally determined contributionsto the 2015 accord, they’ll undoubtedly be early targets for a Trump presidency and will represent a functional withdrawal from the Paris Agreement, even if an actual withdrawal isn’t instantly possible.

Just how quickly Trump will move on such promises, and with what degree of success, cannot be foreseen. However, because so most of the measures adopted by the Obama administration to address climate change were enacted as presidential directives or rules promulgated by the EPA — a strategy adopted to circumvent opposition from climate skeptics in the Republican-controlled House and Senate — Trump can be ready to impose a variety of his own priorities just by issuing new executive orders nullifying Obama’s. Some of his goals will, however, be far harder to achieve. In particular, it will prove difficult indeed to “savethe coal industry if America’s electrical utilities retain their preference for cheap natural gas.

Ignoring Market Realities

This last point speaks to a major contradiction in the Trump energy plan. Seeking to spice up the extraction of every carbon-based energy source inevitably spells doom for segments of the industry incapable of competing within the low-price environment of a supply-dominated Trumpian energy marketplace.

Take the competition between coal and natural gas in powering America’s electrical plants. On account of the widespread deployment of fracking technology within the nation’s prolific shale fields, the U.S. gas output has skyrocketed in recent years, jumping from 18.1 trillion cubic feet in 2005 to 27.1 trillion in 2015. With a lot additional gas available on the market, prices have naturally declined — a boon for the electrical utility companies, which have converted lots of their plants from coal to gas-combustion in order to profit from the low prices. More than the rest, that is accountable for the decline of coal use, with total consumption dropping by 10% in 2015 alone.

In his speech to the Marcellus Coalition, Trump promised to facilitate the expanded output of both fuels. In particular, he pledged to eliminate federal regulations that, he claimed, “remain a serious restriction to shale production.(Presumably, this was a reference to Obama administration measures aimed toward reducing the excessive leakage of methane, a major greenhouse gas, from fracking operations on federal lands.) At the same time, he vowed to “end the war on coal and the war on miners./p>

As Trump imagines the situation, that “war on coalis a White House-orchestrated drive to suppress its production and consumption through excessive regulation, especially the Clean Power Plan. But while that plan, if ever fully put into operation, would result in the accelerated decommissioning of existing coal plants, the true war against coal is being conducted by the very frackers Trump seeks to unleash. By encouraging the unrestrained production of natural gas, he will ensure continued low gas prices and so a depressed market for coal.

The same contradiction lies at the guts of Trump’s approach to oil: rather than seeking to bolster core segments of the industry, he favors a supersaturated market approach that may find yourself hurting many domestic producers. Right now, in reality, the single biggest impediment to oil company growth and profitability is the low price environment brought on by a world glut of crude — itself largely a consequence of the explosion of shale oil production within the United States. With more petroleum entering the market all the time and insufficient world demand to soak it up, prices have remained at depressed levels for more than two years, severely affecting fracking operations as well. Many U.S. frackers, including some in the Bakken formation, have found themselves forced to suspend operations or declare bankruptcy because each new barrel of fracked oil costs more to produce than it can be sold for.

Trump’s approach to this predicament — pump out as much oil as possible here and in Canada — is potentially disastrous, even in energy industry terms. He has, for instance, threatened to open up yet more federal lands, onshore and off, for yet more oil drilling, including presumably areas previously protected on environmental grounds like the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge and the seabeds off the Atlantic and Pacific coasts. In addition, the development of pipelines just like the embattled one in North Dakota and other infrastructure needed to bring these added resources to market will clearly be approved and facilitated.

In theory, this drown-us-in-oil approach should help achieve a much-trumpeted energy “independencefor the United States, but under the circumstances, it will surely prove a calamity of the first order. And such a fantasy version of a future energy market will only grow yet more tumultuous thanks to Trump’s urge to assist ensure the survival of that particularly carbon-dirty form of oil production, Canada’s tar sands industry.

Not surprisingly, that industry, too, is under enormous pressure from low oil prices, as tar sands are way more costly to provide than conventional oil. In the mean time, adequate pipeline capacity is also lacking for the delivery of their thick, carbon-heavy crude to refineries on the American Gulf Coast where they are often processed into gasoline and other commercial products. So here’s yet another Trumpian irony to come: by favoring construction of the Keystone XL pipeline, Trump would throw yet another monkey wrench into his own planning. Sending such a life preserver to the Canadian industry — allowing it to raised compete with American crude — could be another strike against his own “America-first energy plan./p>

Seeking the Underlying Rationale

In other words, Trump’s plan will undoubtedly prove to be an enigma wrapped in a conundrum inside a roiling set of contradictions. Although it appears to offer boom times for every segment of the fossil fuel industry, only carbon as an entire will benefit, while many individual companies and sectors of the market will suffer. What could possibly be the motivation for such a bizarre and planet-enflaming outcome?

To some degree, no doubt, it comes, a minimum of in part, from the president-elect’s deep and abiding nostalgia for the fast-growing (and largely regulation-free) America of the 1950s. When Trump was growing up, the United States was on an extraordinary expansionist drive and its output of basic goods, including oil, coal, and steel, was swelling by the day. The country’s major industries were heavily unionized; the suburbs were booming; apartment buildings were going up everywhere in the borough of Queens in New York City where Trump got his start; cars were rolling off the assembly lines in what was then anything however the “Rust Belt and refineries and coal plants were pouring out the massive amounts of energy needed to make it all happen.

Having grown up within the Bronx, just across Long Island Sound from Trump’s home borough, I can still remember the brand new York of that era: giant smokestacks belching out thick smoke on every horizon and highways jammed with cars adding to the miasma, but in addition to that sense of explosive growth. Builders and automobile manufacturers didn’t need to seriously worry about regulations back then, and positively not about environmental ones, which made life — for them — so much simpler.

It’s that carbon-drenched era to which Trump dreams of returning, even if it’s already clear enough that the one conceivable form of dream that may ever come from his set of policies will probably be a nightmare of the primary order, with temperatures exceeding all records, coastal cities regularly under water, our forests in flame and our farmlands turned to dust.

And don’t forget one other factor: Trump’s vindictiveness — on this case, not just toward his Democratic opponent within the recent election campaign but toward those that voted against him. The Donald is well aware that most Americans who care about climate change and are in favor of a rapid transformation to a green energy America didn’t vote for him, including prominent figures in Hollywood and Silicon Valley who contributed lavishly to Hillary Clinton’s coffers on the promise that the country would be transformed into a “clean energy superpower./p>

Given his well-known penchant for attacking anyone who frustrates his ambitions or speaks negatively of him, and his urge to punish greens by, among other things, obliterating every measure adopted by President Obama to speed the utilization of renewable energy, expect him to rip the EPA apart and do his best to shred any obstacles to fossil fuel exploitation. If which means hastening the incineration of the planet, so be it. He either doesn’t care (since at 70 he won’t live to see it happen), truly doesn’t believe within the science, or doesn’t think it would hurt his company’s business interests over the following few decades.

One other factor needs to be added into this witch’s brew: magical thinking. Like so many leaders of recent times, he seems to equate mastery over oil in particular, and fossil fuels usually, with mastery over the world. On this, he shares a common outlook with President Vladimir Putin of Russia, who wrote his Ph.D. dissertation on harnessing Russia’s oil and gas reserves so as to revive the country’s global power, and with ExxonMobil CEO Rex Tillerson, said to be Trump’s top choice for Secretary of State and an extended-term business partner of the Putin regime. For these and other politicians and tycoons — and, in fact, we’re talking almost exclusively about men here — the possession of giant oil reserves is thought to bestow a form of manly vigor. Think of it as the national equivalent of Viagra.

Back in 2002, Robert Ebel of the center for Strategic and International Studies put the matter succinctly: “Oil fuels greater than automobiles and airplanes. Oil fuels military power, national treasuries, and international politics… [It is] a determinant of well being, national security, and international power for those who possess [it] and the converse for those who do not./p>

Trump seems to have fully absorbed this line of thinking. “American energy dominance will probably be declared a strategic economic and foreign policy goal of the United States,he declared at the Williston forum in May. “We will become, and stay, totally independent of any need to import energy from the OPEC cartel or any nations hostile to our interests.He seems firmly convinced that the accelerated extraction of oil and other carbon-based fuels will “make America great again./p>

This is delusional, but as president he will undoubtedly be able to make enough of his energy program happen to attain both short term and long run energy mayhem. He won’t actually be capable of reverse the global shift to renewable energy now under way or leverage increased American fossil fuel production to realize significant foreign policy advantages. What his efforts are, however, likely to ensure is the surrender of American technological leadership in green energy to countries like China and Germany, already racing ahead in the development of renewable systems. And in the process, he may also guarantee that all of us are going to experience yet more extreme climate events. He will never recreate the dreamy America of his memory or return us to the steamy economic cauldron of the post-World War II period, but he may succeed in restoring the smoggy skies and poisoned rivers that so characterized that era and, as an added bonus, bring planetary climate disaster in his wake. His slogan must be: Make America Smoggy Again.

Michael T. Klare, a TomDispatch regular, is a professor of peace and world security studies at Hampshire College and the author, most recently, of The Race for What’s Left. A documentary movie version of his book Blood and Oil is available from the Media Education Foundation. Follow him on Twitter at @mklare1.

Follow TomDispatch on Twitter and join us on Facebook. Check out the newest Dispatch Book, Nick Turse’s Next Time They’ll Come to Count the Dead, and Tom Engelhardt’s latest book, Shadow Government: Surveillance, Secret Wars, and a worldwide Security State in a Single-Superpower World.

Cuisinart Electric Skillet Cooking Masde Easy

Cuisinart is an universally recognized title and top chefs around the world have endorsed their products. They have a protracted-standing history of receiving design awards and are nicely know for his or her quality products.

Ceramic pall ringAnytime you want to to arrange dinner up a specific meal, a Cuisinart electric skillet will make it easier to get the job completed proper and your meal will be delicious. An electrical skillet is much like a frying pan and it is heated with electrical energy versus inserting it on a stove. A quality electric skillet will provide symmetrical heating all through the surface.

Electric skillets are available a wide range of shapes and sizes and are gaining in popularity significantly amongst those that journey rather loads or that dwell alone or with one other person. Those which are part of a bigger family know that an electrical skillet may additionally change into useful for them as well.

The Cuisinart electric skillet CSK-150 is an excessive performance skillet that looks great. It’s fabricated from brushed chrome steel development with a non-stick cooking floor and die-forged stainless handles. It features a tempered glass lid with a chrome steel rim and handle. The sort of lid is great for having the ability to view how your meals is coming together with out having to take off the lid. You possibly can cook to a most of 450 degrees Fahrenheit and it’s dishwasher safe. Also included is an instruction/recipe guide with thirty recipes. What a great solution to get you began on cooking up some scrumptious new meals.

The Cuisinart electric skillet CSK-250 is best is aware of because the GreenGourmet. It’s a 14 inch skillet made with a petroleum free, ceramic primarily based cooking surface. This surface is non-stick and contains no PTFE (a synthetic better recognized by its model name, Teflon) or PFOA (also a synthetic). With this skillet you possibly can simmer, sear, fry, griddle or braise with little or no oil or butter. Its adjustable temperature management dial ranges from warm to 450 degrees Fahrenheit. The indicator gentle will turn off when the desired temperature is reached. Also included is a booklet of thirty recipes, together with the instructions.

A Cuisinart electric skillet has the complete features that experts agree a very good electric skillet should have: nice temperature controls, simple to scrub, straightforward to prepare dinner with, an excellent dimension and a lid with a large viewing window. The lids on Cuisinart electric skillets have a small gap that permits steam to flee. That is one other good feature on account of nobody likes their lids to “dance in placewhile their meals is cooking.

You could possibly discover a Cuisinart electric skillet at online sites and likewise on auction websites likes Amazon and eBay. You possibly can often find excellent deals online and even after you check out and think about transport prices, you should still get an important deal.

Electric skillets are sometimes utilized in small spaces like dorms, recreational automobiles and studio and one-bedroom apartments. In fact, they aren’t limited to those that have space issues. Cuisinart electric skillets persistently get glorious opinions from shoppers and, in case you might be in the market for an electric skillet, you may be completely satisfied in case you choose a Cuisinart!

For more Cuisinart Electric Skillet information go to the Cuisinart Electric Skillet website.

Kinds of Wholesale Distribution And Sales Channels

There are various types of customers and many ways of getting your products to them. These “channels” are for probably the most part representatives, brokers or distributors. The vast majority of your sales will be done by distributors.

air group pairThis text will concentrate on the 2 most basic forms of distribution or channels; those that sell to the “end user” and those that sell to use by other businesses. Those that sell consumer products are much greater in number and are often where many people begin their wholesale business. People who sell consumer products act as a go between for retailers and the manufacturers of the products. Within the industrial wholesale business, you’ll act as the intermediary for manufacturers and industry service providers.

Consumer goods wholesalers might work with products equivalent to apparel, jewelry, beauty products, shoes, and electronics. Things like groceries and paper products are also considered to be smaller goods that do not fall into an industrial category. These are generally the products that you find in stores and online. A customer could be able to easily go to the retailers that you’re selling this stuff to, after which purchase the items. You’ll also see these kinds of products on Internet auction sites – such as eBay.

Industrial or “business to business” goods are larger profit items, but also require more effort on the wholesaler’s part. Products might be raw materials, chemicals, production or manufacturing equipment, etc. Things like machinery and equipment would also fall into this arena as well. You can also establish a motor vehicle parts business or work with petroleum products. Likewise, you could possibly also sell lumber and other construction necessities. These items are typically larger in quantity as well as size, requiring the wholesaler to have a larger storage space as well as equipment to maneuver them from their warehouse to the retailer.

While the industrial goods wholesale business requires more effort, it may also reap a larger profit. However, it may be confusing when you’re first establishing yourself as a wholesaler. With such large and complicated items, you may not feel as confident at pricing the products and even relating information to the retailers. In case you are just starting a business you would start with nitch products which can be tougher to search out, that way you aren’t competing in price and inventory will not be a difficulty. And once you begin to make a profit from your initial business, then you can move into the larger goods.

If you already have a background in larger goods, you may find that dealing with retailers that want to buy these kinds of products is an easier task than most. This sort of sales is usually called “solution sales” because for larger, costlier goods you need knowhow for implementation or training.

No matter what kind of products you sell or what sort of channel you target you always need to learn and know all distribution and sales channels. When you learn about the final kinds of distributors it’s important to study specific sales channels. Channels reminiscent of convenience stores, supermarkets, beverage distributors, cash and carry, OEM’s, etc.

Commercial Short Selling Within the Crude Oil Market

The United States is awash in domestically produced crude oil. U.S. crude oil inventories just hit a 26-year high. Heck, just last year North Dakota passed Ecuador’s production and Ecuador is a member of OPEC. Furthermore, the U.S. is predicted to takeover the crown as largest global oil producer from Saudi Arabia as early as 2020. The questions that keep coming up are two-fold. “Why hasn’t the value of oil fallen and why are gas prices still so high.” The reply is solely, politics and logistics.

Mesh corrugatedForty years ago, the Energy Policy and Conservation Act was enacted. The concept was for probably the most part, to ban crude oil exports thus moving away from OPEC sourced production and towards primarily Texas based production in the course of the oil crisis of the 1970’s and the OPEC embargo. While the intention was noble at the time, it is clear that the worldwide energy production landscape has shifted. We are quickly approaching the point of energy independence. Our production is already eclipsing imports at the weekly level regularly. In reality, the production growth here within the U.S. has helped to equalize a world production decline in each of the last three years.

That is where the loophole in the Energy Policy and Conservation Act comes into play. While crude oil itself cannot be exported, refined petroleum products can. Therefore, the oil refining companies have had access to both domestic and global markets for the last 40 years while the actual drillers have been handcuffed by an outdated policy. The oil drillers, held captive by legislation have seen the value of U.S. crude oil decline in comparison with the world market as domestic supplies have increased. The refiners have used the oversupplied domestic situation to their advantage. They’ve been buying domestic oil on a budget and reselling the refined petroleum products at elevated global market prices. Score one for the refining industry.

Ironically, altering outdated legislation may not even be necessary to equalize prices. The first glut is confined to the Midwest. Canadian oil is available in through the Keystone pipeline together with North Dakota and Montana’s. All of it finally ends up in Cushing, Oklahoma. Pipeline expansion would deliver this light sweet crude to more refineries, which might balance out the difference between the east and west coasts versus Midwest gas prices. Pipelines just like the Gulf Coast Pipeline Project, the Houston Lateral Project and obviously, the Keystone expansion could double the Gulf Coast refining capacity and help bring West Texas Intermediate(WTI) prices back inline with the Brent crude global benchmark.

Alarmists have used the previous example as an example that gas prices would rise, “throughout the American heartland.” However, it’s totally easy to see the population shifting from the American heartland to the coasts. Lifting the export ban would certainly lower the value of Brent crude, which could be a huge benefit to coastal refiners, which already import and refine heavier Brent crude, in addition to their general populations. The simple answer is that it could create a more efficient global market and an efficient market lowers prices for everybody involved. Thus, the refiners would be the loudest voice of protest.

The embedded bias in the domestic crude oil market that has been exacerbated by the boom in the fracking industry creates a peculiar set of trading biases. Fear within the crude oil market is always measured in surprise price spikes. This can be measured by commercial traders’ (refiner) buying locking in future supply. Commercial traders were huge buyers on the 2007-2008 rally and were also the most important sellers at the highest. Therefore, it is prudent to note that their current position is the least bullish since August of 2005. We have used this bias to trade the short side of the discounted WTI contract for years. You may see our typical chart setup for commercial short selling in WTI crude, here.

The modern The fashionable Frankincense And Goat Milk Soap

The cosmetics world is stuffed with quite a lot of merchandise that promise to revitalize your skin and to make you look much younger. In actual fact a lot of the items marketed are just promoting lies and lots of solutions do much more harm than good. Cosmetics should be manufactured by using only natural active ingredients which have proven to have therapeutic effects. All people should think twice before buying a soap that has only additives made in a lab and nothing pure inside.

Mesh corrugated

Luckily not all things look grim. There are producers available on the market that attempt to introduce better and natural merchandise. Such a product is a soap that combines the curative effects of goat milk with the nice scent of frankincense oil. Such a product can be found online and it is offered in its place to the soap bars made by major manufacturers.

The soaps we use regularly are made on a glycerin base. This material is extracted from petroleum and it is not natural whatsoever. The strategy of soap production makes loads of harmful waste and this process affects all sorts of ecosystems. In the previous couple of year smaller producers have tried to advertise greener and healthier soap.

The frankincense and goat milk soap is made to take care of your skin layer and to not induce any undesired allergic reactions. Goat milk is a rich in fat product and it is utilized in cosmetic treatments for a lot of thousands of years. There is no need to buy chemical based goods, when goat milk based goods are available. Goat milk can improve the state of your skin and it’ll make it much softer.

Frankincense is some of the well known perfumed oils available available on the market. It too has specific effects on the skin and it is a superb anti-inflammatory product. Additionally it is a terrific antiseptic and it’ll take care of the skin. Through the use of a soap based on the 2 natural products you’ll enjoy the benefits of nature itself. It’s unnecessary to trust big manufacturers that promote their products by utilizing millions of dollars. Natural products are better and you will note what I am talking about if you employ them.

Make a change in your life and check out modern items. Natural skin care products can improve your health and you will feel better. You could find loads of interesting offers online and shipping is generally free.

Edwin is a health junkie who strives to learn the truths behind healthy living. He’s currently obssessed with frankinese and myrrh in addition to their health benefits. Learn more on his discoveries, visit =>

Save some Gas

As everyone should know gas prices fluctuate, rising more often than declining. There are several reasons that this happens and they all relate to each other pushing prices higher or bringing them lower. The concept of supply and demand plays a significant role in this. Energy will always be a valuable commodity since there’s a limited supply, its constantly be used and over time, because the worlds population continues to grow, more will be needed. Since you cant control the price of gasoline, what you may control is how much of it you employ.

chlorine factoryThe United States has especially become dependant on petroleum products. US imports 9,783,000 barrels of crude oil a day, while motorists consume 378 million gallons daily. You can see how this trend cant sustain itself forever. For those who say “Im just one person, how can I make a difference.” The small stuff you do each day, will in actual fact, prevent gas and also in turn you have to fill up less often. One simple and great way to save lots of yourself some cash is to walk to your destination. Im sure all of us can remember a time after we didnt have a vehicle, either because it was in the shop getting repaired, or in teenagers case you have no license yet. If going to the store or friend/relative just a few blocks away, why not take a mike ride there or if its a very nice day just walk over there. Granted it takes a bit of more time, but along with saving some gas you also get a small workout to burn off some calories.

For the errands or stores which might be farther away and would take to long walking there. If you do decide to hop in you car theres a number of tips that can get you where youre going with the least amount of gas spent. First off in the age of technology it’s best to own a GPS system. They range in price but all are well within affordable, check online and do some comparison shopping. Chances are high youll run into a sale.

Most dont realize how far they’ll get with using the momentum of the vehicle. What burns the most? Acceleration, if you may maintain even a slow speed, its that much less your car should burn to get going again. anticipating traffic conditions and light sequences, or get o the subsequent light. This may also reduce the wear and tear on your brakes and tires. You can be surprised how much gas youre saving and notice the brakes and tires lasting longer.

Driving between 45-60mph is taken into account essentially the most fuel-efficient cruising range. It just so happens that this range coincides with most parkway and secondary roads. A GPS system will help you map out your destination, and in conjunction along with your “cruise control” you possibly can maintain optimum mpg.

Aerodynamics plays an important role as your vehicle moves. The less it has to fight the laws of physics, the less fuel shall be consumed. Keep the windows rolled up and use your cars ventilation. It’s more energy efficient than keeping windows open at speeds over 25mph. When down air gets sucked into the car creating a pushing effect thats called “drag.” This makes the engine work harder, burning more fuel to take care of the same speeds. Roof racks that are used often might be taken off until needed to maintain the vehicles exterior clutter free, and in its more aerodynamic shape. Make sure that tires are at 32psi, driving under inflated tires could cause you to use as much as 10% more fuel.

Doing these small things everyday can really add up. Just make sure you make a conscience effort in doing so. Walking when not going far, using your GPS system for the most direct route, rolling up windows on parkways, using the cars momentum between lights. Even checking tire pressure are small things that won’t cross our minds during our everyday errands and hectic schedule. You know what though, in case your serious about saving money where you may you’ll make a conscience effort to do so.

Exploring Investment Opportunites Within the Oil & Gas Sector

At Speedstar, we believe in the equitable creation of wealth to all our stakeholders: employees, investors, and shareholders. This wealth is created through innovative and prompt delivery of high quality services to our yearning customers.

At Transportation level, we provide safe, secured neat and transport services at affordable rates. Under this category, we now have the under-listed services.

Speedstar Intra: To provide neat and secure intra-city transport inside the Lagos metropolis.

Speedstar Inter: To provide comfortable transport services within Lagos and the Southwestern a part of the country.

Speedstar Duluxe: To supply air conditioned buses for hire by individuals and organizations, for tours, retreat, weddings and other useful engagements.

At speedstar Haulages we offer services in the world of petroleum product haulage (PMS, AGO, DPK and LFPO) inside the southwestern axis of the country.

We serve the marine industry by providing cargo transport services at the port to bonded terminals and locations throughout the southwestern part of the country.

We equally serve, the commodities market by providing affordable and secured haulage services for movement and delivery of commodities like cement, rice flour etc.


Our fleet management services involve management of trucks placed under our management for a fee. Under this scheme, individuals who wish to take a position within the haulage industry but do not need the time to supervise, the business, acquires the truck under their name and provides it to us to manage at agreed percentage monthly of income generated.


Haulage means transporting of goods (products) from one place to a different. This distance (mileage) between the places of origin to the ultimate destination is what the haulage business charge for. The Haulage business is therefore, simply the business of constructing goods available when and where they are needed.

Haulage starts from the purpose of extraction or loading to the purpose of delivery of the goods (products) for the satisfaction of the final consumers.

Goods which can be usually carried include:

(a) Petroleum products comparable to Premium Motor Spirit (PMS), Dual Purpose Kerosene (DPK), Automotive Gas Oil (AGO), Low Pour Fuel Oil (LPFO) and other Petrochemicals.
(b) Building materials corresponding to sand, clay, granite, cement, iron rods etc.

Haulage distance charged can be throughout the state of operation e.g. Lagos and is known as (Local) or outside the state called (Interstate) or within a geographical region e.g. Southwest, South south etc.


Haulage involves the movement of products by both rail and road, but since the collapse of rail system in Nigeria, road haulage has taken the lead. The country has enough population and a superb network of roads linking the 36 states and Abuja, though not in excellent condition.

The transport sector is an important component of the economy impacting on the development and the welfare of the massive population of about 140 million. When transport systems are efficient, they provide economic and social opportunities and benefits that result in positive multipliers effects corresponding to better accessibility to markets and additional investments. Transport also carries an important social and environmental load, which can’t be neglected.

Haulage has the next importance in the society.

(i) Moving of material from the natural stage.

(ii) Conveying raw materials to the factory and helping the producers to convey their goods to wholesaler (distributors).

(iii) Helping the producers to cut back the content of the warehouse. An efficient transport system offering cost, time and reliability advantages permits goods to be transported over longer distances. This facilitates mass production through economies of scale because larger markets can be accessed. Thus, the more efficient transportation becomes, the larger the markets that can be serviced and the larger the dimensions of production.

(iv) Helping the wholesalers (distributors) to get their purchased goods to their stores. Improvement in the efficiency with which firms have access to raw materials and parts in addition to to their respective customers. Thus, transportation expands opportunities to acquires and sell quite a lot of commodities necessary for individual and manufacturing systems.

(v) Increased competition. When transport is efficient, the potential market for a given product (or service) increase, and so does competition. A wider array of goods and services becomes available to consumers through competition which tends to cut back costs and promote quality and innovation.

(vi) Increase land value: Land which is adjacent or serviced by good transport services generally has greater value as a result of utility it confers to many activities.

(vii) Haulage also contributes to economic development through job creation and its derived economic activities. Accordingly a large number of direct (freighters, managers, shippers) and indirect (insurance, finance, packaging, handling travel agencies, transit operators) employment are related to transport.

Producers and consumers take economic decisions in products markets, cost, location prices which are based on transport services, their availability costs and capacity.

(viii) In conclusion, haulage makes goods and services available where and when they are needed. It provides market accessibility by linking producers and consumers.


This implies the different sections of haulage business one can venture into depending on one capability and other factors. The kind of vehicles or equipment used in haulage business differs on the kind and nature of haulage.


This involves the usage of heavy equipment to break mass deposit quarry into smaller granite sizes. In a quarry site which has been acquired by a quarry company with license from the federal government to interrupt and sell to the public. These equipment, most often are been rented from leasing company and a certain amount is paid at the top of the month as per contract agreement between the two parties. The quarry breaker is the equipment used. It is expensive; hence it is usually purchased by leasing companies or banks and rent out to quarry companies.


This is the use of tippers of various sizes to transport granites from quarry site or sand from the leave or sea to be used in construction industries/sites. Tipping trucks or dumping trucks are used to convey granite or sand. They are usually in 20 or 30 tons capacity. Pay loader is capital intensive and because of this many investors ignore it, but it is a money spinning investment.

These are equipment use in lifting and transporting of heavy duty equipment like construction equipment, poles, transformers, generators etc. the craning truck has dual purpose, it is use to load and transport cargo.

It’s transporting of petroleum products such as kerosene, diesel, petrol, and other petroleum products from depots to their required destinations to satisfy the final consumers. You might be bond to make fortune on this section of haulage business because Nigeria is an oil producing country, so there’ll always be job for you.

There are numerous capacities and sizes of tankers with capacities ranging between 5,000 20,000 litres are used to transport basically diesel and kerosene. The larger capacity tanks 30,000 46,000 capacity, however, can be utilized to hold any of the petroleum products.

This is the commonest type of haulage business. And it involves the use of various sizes of truck to convey goods, containers, cargo etc from one place to the opposite until it gets to the ultimate consumers destinations.
Different tonnage of trucks is used for different purposes.


The market for haulage is wide; hence demand for the services is always per seconds. Because of the high rate of importation the demand for the dispatch of containers boxes is high. Also with the present form or our refineries that rely heavily on the importation of petroleum products the demand for petroleum products haulage is high. Hence our proposal is based on TANKERING & TRUCKING.

Trucks for container haulage could be short framed. Trucks for 20 feet containers or ling framed trucks for the 40 feet containers. The cost varies between N3m N12m depending on the scale and age of trucks.

The users of truck services are: companies, individuals, agencies among others.

You would require the next for container haulage:
(i) Tractor: Which is the head, the truck itself
(ii) Body of the truck: The flat bed where the container boxes will sit on
(iii) Fourteen tires

The Return On Investment (ROI) is high because the patronage is always there. The haulage is a 6 days every week, 30 days in a month and 365 days in a year.

The rate of income can be based on the turn around time of the truck. Because of the constraints such as traffic congestion on the road, mechanical faults, etc one could experience a little bit hiccup. But, with proper management, the haulage service is a high yielding investment enterprise.

The port management servcies expects a trucker to go a minimum of two trips of dispatching containers to allocated bonded terminals outside the ports.

Per trip, the truck is paid between N15,000 N16,000
Running cost per trip is around N6,500
Projected profit per trip N9,500

N9,500 per trip x 2 trips per day N19,000 per day
N19,000 x 6 days N114,000 Per week
N114,000 x 4 weeks N456,000 per 30 days

That is monthly income within Lagos.

For trucks plying throughout the southwestern zone
Add 50% of the monthly income

i.e. N456,000 = N228,000

Monthly return = N456,000 + N228,000 = N684,000

Therefore monthly income for trucks plying the
southwestern axis shall be N684,000

annual income = N684,000 x 12 = N8,208,000
Less 30%
Depreciation/Maintenance = N2,462,400

Annual Net Income N5,745,600


For trips wthin Lagos, a medium size tanker charges between
N30,000 N45,000

Let’s assume N35,000 per trip
For an average trip an expense of N6,500
Net profit per trip N28,500
A mean of 20 trips monthly N28,800 x 20

Annual income N570,000 x 12 = N6,840,000
Less 30 %
Depreciation/ Maintenance = N2,052,000
Net Annual Income = N4,788,000


Just like all high yeilding business, haulage has it’s own problems too. A number of the challenges facing this business opportunity are:

(i) The Drivers: That is a significant problem with this great business
(ii) Your manager
(iii) The stae of your truck
(iv) The Mechanic handling the repairs of the truck


The answer to those problems are:

(i) Get a very good driver, or put you truck under a fleet manager that may take care of the running of the truck in your behalf at an agreed fee.

(ii) Tracker: If you place all your trucks on a trucker, the moment your driver placed on the ignition for the day you will get all his movement through, text messages.

(iii) You can too seek the service of an experience mechanic to inspect your trucks before purchase. Also seek counsel from people already within the business.

Rubber Products Manufacturers

Rubber products manufacturing is a posh process and with such a variety of rubber products, rubber products manufacturers have been segregated into different product categories. Polymerization, polycondensation and Vulcanization are the fundamental processes to mould the natural and synthetic rubber into general and special application with a purpose to manufacture rubber products. Recycling machine, rubber moulding machine, thermoforming machine, and vulcanization machine are of basic need. The bottom line of rubber manufacturing that manufacturers cannot afford to forget while dealing with rubber is that rubber needs to be flexible or resilient enough for thousands of cycles, it have to be resistant to gas and oil and it has to endure the temperature extremes.

ice machine installation

Rubber products manufacturersneed t to know the product they can manufacture from rubber like rubber mats, rubber stamp, rubber bracelet, industrial rubber, rubber roofing, table tennis items, rubber gasket, rubber mulch, bands, tracks and plenty of more as this knowledge will help them decide that which product line they’ll channel their business. This knowledge is all of the more important because the product whether it is a raw material or any materials related to the essential process formulation decides everything.

There is some kind of regulation like FDA or military regulation which manufacturers need to pay attention to before making certain type of rubber products. Rubber product manufacturers must take under consideration the expertise from topnotch engineers as rubber itself is not a cheap raw material and the formulation of rubber product is pretty expensive so manufacturers cannot afford to rectify the mistakes and compromise with time and cost. Rubber products manufacturers must plan technical and economical feasibility and legal and environmental aspects. The extensive plantation sector, abundance of raw materials, availability of cheap labor, plenty of training institutes, booming automobile sector, economic reform, and improving lifestyle contribute to its flourishing aspect. There are even many rubber products manufacturers associations which offer valuable guidelines and information that can be put to use.

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Minor Rubber manufactures custom molded rubber products offering compression molding, transfer molding and rubber injection molding to fulfill the needs of industries

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Publisher: Jovanky De Los Santos Extruded rubber products are utilized in wide number of industrial application. Their high tensile strength and durability makes them suitable for various sorts of industrial uses and sealing application. Rubber Products Exporters A Flexible width:622px;height:15px;font-style:italic;text-align:center”>This text was published on 2010/09/28 World’s Best Package Designs Bose SIE2 and SIE2i sport headphones Apple’s headphones for iPhone ” href=””> Sennheiser RS 170 wireless Headphone reviews: Panasonic RP-HJE355 Google’s Third Quarter 2012 Earnings Top Creative Ice Cream Trucks America’s Most-liked Businesses Best Multinational Companies to Work for 8 Companies with Most Sales Exposure to Europe New Articles
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Petroleum Oil, VOC’s And Water Dispersible Metalworking Fluids

The world the world of metalworking the terms mineral oils, petroleum oils, base oils are sometimes used interchangeably. The presence of oils in a metalworking system is usually a benefit or a hindrance depending on the source and where it occurs.Petroleum oil containing fluids/coolants provide needed lubrication/ antiwear properties for both tooling and work piece production.

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They provide good rust protection and are considered some of the trouble free kinds of metalworking fluids. Their limitations include higher cost, disposal, smoke and fire hazards and limited tool life. Other sources of petroleum oils found in metalworking systems may be attributed to leaking machine tool lubrication systems. When this occurs, the oils generated are called tramp oils.

Unfortunately, tramp oils which might be generated on account of petroleum oil based hydraulic oil and gear oils can pose maintenance, environmental and performance issues for the manufacturer.In recent years, the waste disposal of metalworking fluids has been a problem which often affects the choice of metalworking fluid additives and kinds of fluids used.

In some cases, customer have requested mineral oil free systems, but in doing so have limited their ability to provided adequate lubrication to the tooling, in addition to limit their ability to provide acceptable products.

Facts vs myths regarding using mineral oils found in metalworking fluids-

Myth 1 – Mineral oil contents of metalworking fluids will contribute to increase VOC’s in my effluent.

The term “VOC” refers to “volatile organic compounds”. These are organic compounds that have high enough vapor pressures under normal conditions to significantly vaporize and enter the atmosphere.Common sources of VOC’s include solvents, petroleum fuels and distillates comparable to gasoline’s, kerosene’s etc. Also, formaldehydes and primary amines which can be emitted from certain biocide and corrosion inhibitor chemistries; these may also contribute to VOC’s.

Fact 1 – Mineral oils utilized in Chemetall Oakite’s metalworking coolants are high flash, petroleum oils that do not contribute to major increases in VOC’s if used appropriately.

VOC’s attributed to oil based metalworking fluids have to be determined by EPA prescribed test method. This method is designed to detect any organic compound with high vapor pressure. Such components are present in industrial solvents, petroleum fuel components, components of some grades of lubricating oils (hydraulic, gear, or compressor oils) together with components from biocides and rust inhibitors.

The VOC loading that may very well be observed with petroleum oil based metalworking fluids shall be negligible when compared to VOC’s which can occur through tramp oils. Tramp oils can contain not only residual lube oils from machine leakage, but also RP’s, greases, additional process oils related to parts delivered to operation.

Myth 2 – Mineral oils are more difficult to dispose of than water soluble synthetics.

Some manufacturers may claim that since synthetic metalworking fluids are water soluble and contain no mineral oils, that their waste treatability is best over mineral oil products. Disposal costs for any varieties of metalworking fluids-mineral oil based or water based- may be costly depending on the chemistry and the municipal water requirements.

If the ability cannot waste treat products on site, and will need to have products hauled away for disposal, a surcharge could also be applied based on free mineral oil content. Much of this is predicated on regional and municipal requirements.

Synthetic metalworking fluids are true solutions and that make the power to strip additives from the water phase of those products very difficult. Most often, highly specific and expensive polymer agents will have to be added to the effluent to be able to remove the organic additives.

Fact 2 -Micro emulsions resembling GARDOCOOL C 9157 and GARDOCOOL C 9158, as well as semi synthetics reminiscent of GARDOCOOL C 9127 will be easily waste treated by a simple acid split mechanism. Just like conventional soluble oils. Since the vast majority of the additives are oil soluble, they can be readily split out in an acidic environment. Oil containing MW fluids could be waste treated by conventional methods.

Five Things You’re Doing To break Your Skin

1) Steam treatments. We all love a day at the spa or to relax within the steam room after a workout, however the effect on our skin may be very damaging. Steam is water which has been raised to a temperature of 212 degrees that’s extremely hot. When such a high temperature comes into contact with the skin it is rather traumatic for the skin and may even burn the skin. It can even break down elasticity and collagen in the skin over time as well.

2) Lip balm. Lip balms like ChapStick are not moisturizers but are lubricants. A moisturizer introduces moisture to your skin while a lubricant forms a slick barrier on the skin which prevents moisture from reaching your skin. A few examples of moisturizers are Jojoba oil, Vitamin E, Shea butter. Examples of lubricants are mineral oil and petroleum. Ensure your lip balm has a high quality moisturizer as considered one of its first ingredients.

3) Waxing your facial hair. Facial waxing is a very common practice as most every woman wants smooth, gorgeous skin. The issue with facial waxing is that facial skin is very thin and delicate. When hair is ripped from its follicles it traumatizes the skin and causes microscopic bleeding. Over time this will likely lead to changes in pigmentation, rough patches and scarring.

4) Dehydration. Water plays an important role in every function of the human body. One in every of its roles is to flush the toxins from our bodies both through the skin in addition to through the kidneys. Our bodies need a minimum of 64 ounces of water per day. Without enough water bacteria, waste and impurities build up in our bodies and show up within the skin as dry, flaky skin, acne and premature lines and wrinkles. With enough water in our bodies our skin is plump and moist and bacteria is reduced and less prone to form acne and other skin impurities.

5) Cleaning with bare hands. The skin absorbs approximately 60% of what’s placed on to it. Which signifies that if you’re washing dishes, cleaning your counters and floors, dusting and polishing your furniture and other cleaning activities, and you’re not wearing gloves, your hands are exposed to hundreds of toxic ingredients. A few of these ingredients are cancer causing agents. While cancer may take several years to develop in your body there are other signs of distress in your skin, specifically in your hands, which can develop immediately: flaking skin, cracked cuticles, stiffness, peeling, itching or a rash.

Katrina Kritz is the creator of Katixon, a skin care company with Award winning anti-aging skin care ingredients which provide you with Award winning, beautiful skin. To learn more about Katrina’s Award winning ingredients and products and to enroll free of charge newsletters, visit

Patenting Of Software Programmes

Is one of the is likely one of the types of Intellectual Property rights which exist. It grants protection of the patented article to the inventor for a certain time period. Thus monopoly of production of that invention lies with the patent holder. The purpose of this system is to encourage inventions by promoting their protection and utilization. Under the system Patents ensure property rights for the invention for which patent have been granted.

A lot of the jurisprudence referring to software patents emanates from the United States which is taken into account because the cradle of software patents. It began with the landmark decision of the U.S. Supreme Court in Diamond v. Diehr which ordered the patent office to grant patent on an invention though a computer software was utilized in it. In a later decision of In Re Alapat No 92-1381(Fed. Cir. July 29,1994) clarified the position further by allowing the patenting of inventions that may be implemented in either hardware or software, provided the patent application establishes the invention as something greater than a mere mathematical formula. The first software patent ever granted is probably a patent for a “computer having a slow and quick access storage, when programmed to unravel a linear programming problem by an iterative algorithm….” applied for in 1962 by British Petroleum Company. The Patent pertains to solving simultaneous linear equations.

In recent times a raging controversy has been there in India as to whether software programmes should be granted Patent Protection or not. A software Patent is usually defined as a patent that protects some programming technique.

By the Patents (Amendment) Ordinance, 2004 section 3(k) was to be introduced. This section stated
“(k) a pc programme per se apart from its technical application to industry or a mix with hardware.”

On bare reading of the abovementioned section one involves the apparent conclusion that computer programmes were been given patent protection. But on close perusal of the section it is clearly seen that computer programmes per se would not be given protection. Thus protection could only be availed of when a pc programme was combined with some hardware as well. But an issue nevertheless existed and came to an end only when the section in question was removed by the Patent Amendment Act, 2005.

Now there are two sides to this problem. On one side allowing Patent protection over any form of computation seriously harms and hampers the creativity, productivity and freedom of software developers while writing code. The key advantage in using computer programs is that logic will be re-written without rewriting or physically modifying hardware. Thus it is easy to re-write, copy, improve and modify computer programs. A very good example of such use is the Operating system called Linux. There are numerous sorts of Linux like Red Hat Linux, Sussex Linux to call a couple of. These have been developed as a result of additions and subtractions of codes to the original programme.

Software Kinetic Energy Refinery Equipment is complicated. It is a big computer programme and can’t be understood by anybody person. Simply by means of its complexity it relies on an enormous range of software technologies. A significant computer code can comprise anywhere from 100,000 to 10 million lines of code. Software Technology evolves rapidly. It’s thus difficult or impossible to produce new products in the software industry without violating numerous patents. A great example is when the patenting of information exchange standards forced another programming group to introduce an alternate format. PNG format was introduced to avoid the GIF patent problems and the Ogg Vorbis format was introduced to avoid the MP3 patent problems. Finally obtaining patent protection for any invention including software is relatively expensive.

On the opposite side there are high costs involved within the research and development of software which has been one of the reasons of the increasing variety of patent applications for software. Furthermore software products are mass marketed with no signed license agreement, the strong protection provided by patent laws is increasingly important. Finally an issued patent for software may prevent all others from utilizing a certain algorithm without permission, or may prevent others from creating software programs that perform a function in a certain way.

In conclusion Patents and Copyrights form complementary means for protecting software innovations. Patents cover the underlying methodologies embodied in a given piece of software on the function that the software is meant to serve independent of the actual language or code that the software is written in. Copyrights protect against the direct copying of some or all of a selected version of a given piece of software, but do not prevent other authors from writing their very own embodiments of the underlying methodologies. India has progressed in leaps and bounds in the sphere of Intellectual Property Rights. But time continues to be required to let the country reach a stage when the patenting of software is acceptable.

Parity Pricing Of Petroleum Products In India

Refining of crude oil involves conversion of a single input to multiple finished products with different market value and chemical properties, thereby making it difficult to determine the cost of production of every individual product and hence its pricing.

Under the current pricing mechanism in India, the Refinery Gate price (RGP) is the value at which product is transferred/sold from refinery to marketing division of Oil Maketing Companies (OMCs). The RGP of Diesel is currently based on Trade Parity Price (TPP) consisting 80% of Import Parity Price (IPP) and 20% of Export Parity Price (EPP). The RGP of Domestic LPG and that of kerosene sold in the public distribution system relies on IPP as provided within the Kerosene and Domestic LPG Subsidy Scheme, 2002

Import Parity Price (IPP) IPP represents the value that importers would pay in case of actual import of product on the respective Indian ports and includes the elements of Free on Board (FOB) price + Ocean Freight + Insurance + Custom Duties + Port Dues, etc.

Export Parity Price (EPP) EPP represents the worth which oil companies would realize on export of petroleum products. This includes FOB price + Advance License benefit or ALB for duty free import of crude oil pursuant to export of refined products. Consequent to abolition of Customs Duty of Crude oil effective 25.06.2011, the ALB is currently zero.

Beauty Buzzwords Decoded

When it comes to body and haircare products, we frequently say it’s what’s inside that counts, choosing to give attention to top quality ingredients over flashy packaging. But who truly understands the advantages behind all the buzzwords? Here, I wanted to address frequently asked questions about common ingredients and environmental terms, so you can feel confident in choosing the most effective beauty products on your lifestyle.

What’s the difference between perfume oils and essential oils?
Perfume oils are generally synthetic and have been created to smell like a particular plant, fruit, or other aroma. Essential oils are obtained directly from the plant, and offer many medicinal and aromatherapy properties that when breathed in, may uplift, relax, or balance the mood. Using essential oils can replace the need to make use of harsh chemicals, mineral oils and artificial fragrances commonly present in other personal care products.

How about parabens versus preservatives?
Preservatives are a necessary a part of all personal care products; without preservatives, liquids, creams and gels would breed bacteria. Parabens are a commonly known and used preservative in body and skincare products, but have been linked to cancer, toxicities and skin irritations. While a direct link has not been proven, many companies have chosen to eliminate parabens from their products, and use a gentler and more natural preservative system to make sure stability and safety.

And vegan versus cruelty-free?
Vegan refers to products, food, or a lifestyle devoid of animal-derived proteins and substances, including animal derivatives corresponding to milk, eggs and honey. People following a vegan lifestyle rely on only plant- and earth-based substances and avoid using products which have been tested on animals (also referred to as cruelty-free). To determine if a product is vegan, it shouldn’t contain ingredients in the following categories:
— Bee-derived, similar to honey, beeswax, royal jelly, or propolis
— Milk-derived, reminiscent of lactic acid or milk proteins
— Marine-derived collagen or oils
— Carmine (coloring from beetles)

What are UREA, DEA, TEA, Propylene and Phthalates?
Widely used in body and skincare products, many people choose to avoid these chemically-derived ingredients:
UREA is chemically derived ingredient found in lots of body and skincare products. It’s used as a preservative and conditioning agent which can release formaldehyde, a known carcinogenic.
DEA is a synthetic surfactant that aids in foaming, and has been linked to development and reproductive toxicity at high doses starting from birth defects to development delays in children to infertility to reproductive organ cancers.
TEA is a fragrance ingredient, pH adjuster, surfactant and emulsifying agent. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review has placed restrictions on this ingredient regarding the concentration amounts. There may be evidence showing this ingredient to be an immune and respiratory toxicant meaning there are health problems starting from allergic reactions to an incapacity to fight disease and repair damaged tissue in the body.
Phthalates work as softeners in personal care products corresponding to cosmetics and shampoo and have been tied to cancer and as being carcinogenic.

What is PCR?
PCR is Post-Consumer Recycled content or material within the form of papers, plastics, aluminum, etc. Collections made with PCR materials are able to be recycled again, further extending the environmental benefits.

What’s the advantage of vegetable ink?
Soy-based inks are used on paper and carton printing as they are naturally low in volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Soy beans are a clean renewable and sustainable resource, unlike the choice petroleum or chemicals present in traditional inks. Soy ink can also be easier to remove from paper during the recycling process than oil-based ink.