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Grangemouth Refinery is a mature oil refinery complex situated on the Firth of Forth in Grangemouth, Scotland. Currently operated by Petroineos, it’s the only crude oil refinery in Scotland (and can be the one operating oil refinery following the cessation of refining actions at the Dundee Refinery[1]) and currently one of six within the UK. It is reputedly the UK’s second-oldest refinery, and it provides refined products to prospects in Scotland, northern England and Northern Ireland, in addition to occasionally additional afield.

1 Historical past 1.1 Location
1.2 Simple Refinery: 1924-1939
1.3 Petrochemical advanced: 1946-1975
1.Four North Sea Oil: 1975-2004
1.5 Put up-BP Period: 2004-current

Location[edit]
Grangemouth Refinery commenced operation in 1924 as Scottish Oils. Its location at Grangemouth was selected as a result of adjoining Grangemouth Docks which supported the import by ship of Center East crude oils for feedstock, plus a budget availability of massive areas of reclaimed flat land. One other essential factor was the considerable availability of expert labour in shale oil refining: the first oil works on the planet, ‘Young’s Paraffin Mild and Mineral Oil Company Restricted’, had opened in 1851 at Boghead close to Bathgate, to produce oil from shale or coal using the method patented in 1850 by Glasgow scientist Dr James Young (referred to as “Paraffin” Younger), for “treating bituminous coals to acquire paraffine therefrom”.

With the world’s first oil wells coming on-line in 1859 in Pennsylvania in the USA, the global price of oil dropped and plenty of Scottish shale oil works grew to become un-economical and had to both close or concentrate production on different materials. By 1910 solely five major Scottish shale oil firms remained, preventing to stay competitive in opposition to cheaper imported American oil. During the primary World Conflict the British authorities helped to develop new fields in Arabia to provide low-cost oil to maintain the war effort. This drove prices even decrease to a point where the shale oil trade was unable to compete, and as a lead to 1919 the six surviving firms (including Youngs) came collectively under the administration of the newly formed Scottish Oils. That same year Scottish Oils was bought by the Anglo-Persian Oil Firm, a forerunner of the British Petroleum Company (later often called BP)

Simple Refinery: 1924-1939[edit]
The Refinery operated from 1924 to 1939 at a throughput of 360,000 tonnes per yr. It was then compelled to shut down between 1939 and 1946 by World War II and the ensuing drying up of crude feedstock imports. When operations recommenced in 1946, the refinery underwent a variety of major enlargement programmes.

Petrochemical complex: 1946-1975[edit]
In the 1940s the Distiller’s Firm Ltd were investigating synthetic processes for the production of alcohol, to substitute the standard fermentation course of utilizing molasses and so resolve issues with unreliability of supply and the related price fluctuations. This business want mixed with BP’s interest in petrochemical improvement resulted in 1947 within the formation of a joint firm, British Hydrocarbon Chemicals Ltd. The new firm situated its site adjoining the existing BP Grangemouth Refinery, utilising available feedstock from the refinery byproduct streams. This petrochemical plant was commissioned in 1951, the first in Europe.

Within the 1950s the refinery was linked to the Finnart Oil Terminal at Loch Lengthy on the west coast of Scotland by a 58-mile (ninety three km) pipeline, to allow the import of crudes via deep-water jetty, which supported the usage of larger oil tankers. The primary crude oil import from Finnart was in 1952.

Later on within the century a second line was additionally put in to allow the direct provide of finished refinery merchandise to the Finnart terminal, primarily for export to markets in Northern Ireland and the republic.

Within the 1960s, a pilot “proteins-from-oil” production facility was constructed at the refinery. It used British Petroleum’s expertise for feeding n-paraffins to yeast, in order to provide single cell protein for poultry and cattle feed.[2]

BP’s operations at Grangemouth grew over the next twenty years to fulfill the growing calls for for both petrochemicals and fuels.

North Sea Oil: 1975-2004[edit]
In 1975 the discovery of North Sea Oil brought the commissioning of the Kinneil Crude Oil Stabilisation terminal, which connected straight into the INEOS Forties pipeline system; this plant serves to stabilise Forties Crude oil for either export to third parties or feeding into the refinery, and allowed the processing of North Sea oil as part of the refinery crude ‘slate’ of feedstocks.

Submit-BP Interval: 2004-present[edit]
In 2004 BP determined to divest its worldwide olefins and derivatives business: the sale included the Refinery and linked petrochemicals complex (excluding the Kinneil terminal, which BP retains). In 2005 the new firm created to run this enterprise was named Innovene, and later that yr it was purchased by Ineos, a privately owned UK-based mostly chemicals firm.

In 2011 the Ineos Refining enterprise, which included each the Grangemouth and Lavera (outdoors Marseilles, France) Refineries, entered into a 50%/50% joint venture with the Chinese language state oil firm Petrochina, to kind the PetroIneos company.

Grangemouth Refinery as we speak employs over 1300 people over a seven-hundred hectare site.
Scenes from the 2013 film World Conflict Z featuring Brad Pitt had been filmed near the ability.[3][4][5]

Operation[edit]
The Grangemouth Refinery is a major landmark, with its numerous gasoline flares and cooling towers seen across a large area of the Scottish Lowlands.

The refinery has a ‘nameplate’ capacity for processing 210,000 barrels (33,000 m3) of crude oil every day. It presently employs about 1,200 permanent workers, and an additional 1,000 contractors.

It processed approximately four hundred,000 tonnes of imported crude oil yearly until the tip of the Second World Struggle, and subsequent enlargement programmes have increased refining capacity to an excess of 10 million tonnes per 12 months.[6]

The INEOS-owned North Sea Forties pipeline system terminates at the Kinneil processing facility, and surplus crude is exported through pipeline to the Dalmeny tank farm, and subsequently shipped out from the Hound Point marine terminal onto oil tankers of up to 350,000 D.W.T. that are able to navigate the shallow water of the Forth.

Annual output share[edit]
Petrol – 22%
Diesel – 24%
Kerosene & Jet gasoline – 13%
Gasoline oil – 8%
– Gasoline oil – 15%
LPG/petrochemical feedstocks – 12%
Fuel gasoline/other – 6%
Waste – 1%

Safety file[edit]
One of the refinery’s largest accidents happened at 7am on Sunday 22 March 1987 when the HydroCracker Unit exploded. The ensuing vibrations and noise could possibly be heard as much as 30 km away. The ensuing hearth burned for many of the day. One worker was killed.[7] Just 9 days earlier on the 13 March, one other incident occurred involving the refinery flare line, bloomberg new energy finance contact the ensuing fireball killed two staff.[8]

In 2002, BP the previous homeowners of the plant, had been fined £1m for breaching security laws throughout a series of incidents which occurred in 2000.[9]

Ineos went to court in April 2008 over claims that it had polluted the River Forth in mid-2007.[10]
Ineos industrial disputes[edit]

In 2008, Ineos proposed that plant staff start contributing a share towards their own pensions (a final salary pension scheme[eleven]), as an alternative of the existing non-contributory fixed wage pensions. The request would have obliged future new entry staff to pay 6% of their salary, phased in over a six-yr period. Ninety seven% of the Unite commerce union’s 1,250 members at Grangemouth voted in favour of strike action. David Watt, of the Institute of Directors in Scotland, stated that the average Grangemouth Refinery plant worker earns £40,000 per year (almost twice the Scottish average.)[12] This was disputed by the Deputy General Secretary of the Scottish Trades Union Congress, Dave Moxham, who acknowledged that they earn £30,000 per 12 months.[11]

The strike started on 27 April 2008, and lasted till 29 April.[13] The petrol provide of Scotland was affected by the strike, as panic buying led some petrol stations across the nation to run dry.[14] The Retail Motor Trade Federation acknowledged that there was a stock of gasoline that could last 70 days, easily protecting the lapse in production so lengthy as no panic buying occurred.[15] With the shutdown of the plant, BP closed the Forties pipeline system as their Kinneil terminal relies on energy from the Grangemouth refinery.[Sixteen] With the shutdown of Kinneil, 70 North Sea oil platforms have been compelled to shut down or cut back production, at the price of seven hundred,000 barrels per day (one hundred ten,000 m3/d).[Sixteen] Shutting the pipeline down diminished Britain’s petroleum supply (the Forties pipeline supplies 30% of the UK’s North Sea oil), and value the UK financial system £50 million in lost manufacturing every day it remained closed.[17]

There was additional industrial action in 2013. Ineos stated that bloomberg new energy finance contact the plant was making losses, and provided a survival plan requiring workers to just accept worse employment terms, notably on pensions, which the workers rejected.[18][19] Ineos stated in October 2013 that the petrochemical works would shut.[20][21] Following negotiations led by Scottish Finance Secretary John Swinney and Scottish Secretary Alistair Carmichael, on 24 October the unions accepted a survival plan put forward from the administration of the plant.[22] On 25 October 2013, it was introduced the plant will keep open and Unite had agreed to taking no strike action for three years, transferring to a brand new pension scheme and accepting a 3-year pay freeze.[23]

2009 Jaipur fireplace
Esso Refinery, Milford Haven
2005 Hertfordshire Oil Storage Terminal hearth
^ http://www.nynas.com/en/Surroundings-and-society/Setting/Dundee-Refinery/
^ Bamberg, J. H. (2000). British Petroleum and global oil, 1950-1975: the challenge of nationalism. Volume three of British Petroleum and Global Oil 1950-1975: The Challenge of Nationalism, J. H. Bamberg British Petroleum sequence. Fawley Cambridge University Press. pp. 426-428. ISBN zero-521-78515-4.
^ http://www.film-locations.com/motion pictures/w/World-Struggle-Z.html#.VGZm8MmhpCs
^ http://www.falkirkherald.co.uk/information/local-news/grangemouth-features-in-hollywood-trailer-1-2641156
^ http://www.heraldscotland.com/news/dwelling-news/zombie-fever-heads-east-as-pitt-hits-grangemouth.14815065
^ UKPIA – Overview of Grangemouth Facility Archived 2008-04-25 at the Wayback Machine.
^ http://www.hse.gov.uk/comah/sragtech/casebpgrang87b.htm The Hydrocracker Explosion and Hearth at BP Oil, Grangemouth Refinery. 22 March 1987
^ https://www.icheme.org/communities/special-curiosity-groups/safety%20and%20loss%20prevention/assets/~/media/Documents/Topic%20Groups/Safety_Loss_Prevention/HSE%20Accident%20Reports/The%20Fires%20and%20Explosion%20at%20BP%20Oil%20Grangemouth%20Refinery%20Ltd.pdf
^ “BP fined £1m for safety offences”. BBC News. 18 January 2002. Retrieved 4 Could 2010.
^ “Court motion for refinery bosses”. BBC Information. 22 April 2008. Retrieved four May 2010.
^ a b “Staff left with no different”. BBC News. 23 April 2008. Retrieved four May 2010.
^ “‘Be reasonable’ name to petrol workers”. BBC Information. 22 April 2008. Retrieved four Might 2010.
^ “Deal might end refinery dispute”. BBC Information. 29 April 2008. Retrieved 4 May 2010.
^ “The petrol picture in Scotland”. BBC Information. 25 April 2008. Retrieved four Could 2010.
^ “Q&A: The Grangemouth dispute”. BBC Information. 28 April 2008. Retrieved 4 May 2010.
^ a b “Opec warns oil may attain $200”. BBC News. 28 April 2008. Retrieved 4 Could 2010.
^ “‘Weeks’ to re-start strike plant”. BBC News. 26 April 2008. Retrieved 4 Could 2010.
^ Anthony Clark (17 October 2013). “Unite accuses Ineos of ‘fancy accounting’ over Grangemouth”. Plastics & Rubber Weekly. Retrieved 25 October 2013.
^ Douglas Fraser (18 October 2013). “Shedding mild on Grangemouth”. BBC. Retrieved 25 October 2013.
^ “Grangemouth dispute: Ineos says petrochemical plant will shut”. BBC News. 23 October 2013. Retrieved 23 October 2013.
^ “Grangemouth plant shutdown leaves government preventing to save lots of 800 jobs”. The Guardian. 23 October 2013. Retrieved 23 October 2013.
^ “Grangemouth dispute: Hopes rise after Unite accepts survival plan”. BBC Information. 24 October 2013. Retrieved Petroleum Display 24 October 2013.
^ “Grangemouth dispute: Ineos says plant will stay open”. BBC News. 25 October 2013. Retrieved 25 October 2013.